Publications of Toomas Tammaru

I. Papers in international journals
      II. Butterflies and moths here and there
           III. Home-made theories                                     Back to main page

I. Papers in international journals (reversed chronological order )

Laihonen, M., Saikkonen, K., Helander, M. and Tammaru, T. 2020. Insect oviposition preference between Epichloe-symbiotic and Epichloe-free grasses does not necessarily reflect larval performance - Ecology and Evolution , 10: 7242-7249

Kivelä, S. M., Davis, R. B., Esperk, T., Gotthard, K., Mutanen, M., Valdma, D. and Tammaru, T. 2020. Comparative analysis of larval growth in Lepidoptera reveals instar-level constraints. – Functional Ecology, 34: 1391-1403

Viljur, M.-L., Tiitsaar, A., Gimbutas, M., Kaasik, A., Valdma, D., Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. and Teder, T. 2020. Conserving woodland butterflies in managed forests: both local and landscape factors matter. – Forest Ecology and Management, 462: 118002

Tiitsaar, A., Valdma, D., Õunap, E., Remm, J., Teder, T. and Tammaru, T. 2019. Distribution of butterflies (Lepidoptera: Papilionoidea) in Estonia: Results of a systematic mapping project reveal long-term trends. - Annales Zoologici Fennici, 56: 147–185.

Molleman, F., Javoiš, J., Davis, R. B., Whitaker, M., Tammaru, T., Prinzing, A., Õunap, E., Wahlberg, N., Kodandaramaiah, U., Aduse-Poku, K., Kaasik, A. and Carey, J. 2019. Quantifying the effects of species traits on predation risk in nature: a comparative study of butterfly wing damage. – Journal of Animal Ecology, in press.

Murillo-Ramos, L., Brehm, G., Sihvonen, P., Hausmann, A., Holm, S., Ghanavi, H. R., Õunap, E., Truuverk, A., Staude, H., Friedrich, E., Tammaru, T. and Wahlberg, N. 2019: A comprehensive molecular phylogeny of Geometridae (Lepidoptera) with a focus on enigmatic small subfamilies. - PeerJ , 7: e7386

Sõber, V., Sandre, S.-L., Esperk, T., Teder, T. and Tammaru, T. 2019. Ontogeny of sexual size dimorphism revisited: females grow for a longer time and also faster. - PLoS ONE, 14: e0215317.

Holm,S., Javoiš, J., Kaasik, A., Õunap, E., Davis, R. B., Molleman, F. Roininen, H. and Tammaru, T. 2019. Size-related life-history traits in geometrid moths: a comparison of a temperate and a tropical community. - Ecological Entomology, 44: 711-716

Freitak, D., Tammaru, T., Sandre, S.-L., Meister, H. and Esperk T. 2019. Longer life span is associated with elevated immune activity in a seasonally polyphenic butterfly. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 32: 653-665

Holm, S., Javoiš, Molleman, F., Davis, R.B., Õunap, E.; Roininen, H. and Tammaru, T. 2019. No indication of high host-plant specificity in afrotropical geometrid moths. - Journal of Insect Science, 19(3): 1

Õunap, E., Tammaru, T. and Truuverk, A. 2019. Perizomini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae) are polyphyletic. - Insect Systematics and Evolution, in press.

Javoiš, J., Davis, R.B. and Tammaru T. 2019. A comparative morphometric study of sensory capacity in geometrid moths. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 32: 380-389.

Maes D., Verovnik R., Wiemers M., Brosens D., Beshkov S., Bonelli S., Buszko J., Cantu Salazar L., Cassar L.-F., Collins S., Dinca V., Djuric M., Dusej G., Elven H., Franeta F., Garcia Pereira P., Geryak Y., Goffart P., Gor A., Hiermann U., Hottinger H., Huemer P., Jaksic P., John E., Kalivoda H., Kati V., Kirkland P., Komac B., Korosi A., Kulak A., Kuussaari M., L'Hoste L., Lelo S., Mestdagh X., Micevski, N., Mihoci I., Mihut S., Monasterio Leon Y., Morgun D.V., Munguira M.L., Murray T., Nielsen P., Olafsson E., Ounap E., Pamperis L.N., Pavlicko A., Pettersson L.B., Popov S., Popovic M., Poyry J., Prentice M., Reyserhove L., Ryrholm N., Sasic M., Savenkov N., Settele J., Sielezniew M., Sinev S., Stefanescu C., Svitra G., Tammaru T., Tiitsaar A., Tzirkalli E., Tzortzakaki O., van Swaay C. A. M., Viborg A. L., Wynhoff I., Zografou K., Warren M.S. (2019). Integrating national Red Lists for prioritising conservation actions for European butterflies. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 23: 301-330.

Sandre, S.-L., Kaart, T., Morehouse, N. and Tammaru, T. 2018. Weak and inconsistent associations between melanic darkness and fitness-related traits in an insect. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 31: 1959-1968.

Tammaru, T., Johansson, N. R., Õunap, E. and Davis, R. D. 2018. Day-flying moths are smaller: evidence for ecological costs of being large. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology 31: 1400-1404.

Holm, S., Javoiš, J.,Õunap, E., Davis, R. B., Kaasik, A., Molleman, F., Tasane, T. and Tammaru, T. 2018. Reproductive behaviour indicates specificity in resource use: phylogenetic examples from temperate and tropical insects. - Oikos, 127: 1113-1124.

Meister, H., Hämäläinen, R., Valdma, D., Martverk, M. and Tammaru, T. 2018. How to become larger: ontogenetic basis of among-population size differences in a moth. - Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 166: 4-16.

Lindman, L., Remm, J., Meister, H. and Tammaru, T. 2018. Host plant and habitat preference of Euphydryas maturna (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae): evidence from northern Europe. - Ecological Entomology, 43: 102-113.

Meister, H., Esperk, T., Välimäki, P. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Evaluating the role and measures of juvenile growth rate: latitudinal variation in insect life histories. - Oikos, 126: 1726-1737.

Meister, H., Tammaru, T., Sandre, S.-L. and Freitak, D. 2017. Sources of variance in immunological traits: evidence of congruent latitudinal trends across species. - Journal of Experimental Biology 220: 2606-2615.

Kiik, K., Maran, T., Nemvalts, K., Sandre S.-L. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Reproductive parameters of critically endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity. - Animal Reproduction Science, 181: 86-92.

Truuverk, A.; Õunap, E. and Tammaru, T. 2017. Epirrita pulchraria (Taylor, 1907) transferred to Malacodea, with notes on the phylogeny and ecology of the tribe Operophterini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae: Larentiinae). - Zootaxa, 4258: 145-156.

Holm, S., Davis, R. B., Javoiš, J., Õunap, E., Kaasik, A., Molleman, F. and Tammaru, T. 2016. A comparative perspective on longevity: the effect of body size dominates over ecology in moths. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 29: 2422-2435.

Kiik, K., Maran, T., Kneidinger, N. and Tammaru, T. 2016. Social behaviour of endangered European mink (Mustela lutreola) litters in captivity. - Applied Animal Behaviour Science, 182: 61-71.

Põldmaa, K., Kaasik, A., Tammaru, T., Kurina, O., Jügenstein, S. and Teder, T. 2016. Polyphagy on unpredictable resources does not exclude host specialization: insects feeding on mushrooms. - Ecology, 97: 2824-2833.

Tiitsaar, A., Kaasik, A., Lindman, L., Stanevitš, T. and Tammaru, T. 2016. Host associations of Coenonympha hero (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in northern Europe: microhabitat rather than plant species. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 20: 265-275

Davis, R. B., Javoiš, J., Kaasik, A., Õunap, E. and Tammaru, T. 2016. An ordination of life-histories using morphological proxies: capital vs income breeding in insects. - Ecology , 97: 2112-2124

Junker, M., Zimmermann, M., Ramos, A. A., Gros, P., Konvicka, M., Neve, G., Rakosy, L., Tammaru, T., Castilho, R. and Schmitt, T. 2015. Three in one - multiple faunal elements within an endangered European butterfly species. - PLoS ONE, 10: e142282

Meister, H., Lindman, L. and Tammaru, T. 2015. Testing for local monophagy in the regionally oligophagous Euphydryas aurinia (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae). - Journal of Insect Conservation, 19: 691-702

Välimäki, P., Kivelä, S., Raitanen, J., Pakanen V.-M., Vatka, E., Mäenpää, M., Keret, N. and Tammaru, T. 2015. Larval melanism in a geometrid moth: promoted neither by a thermal nor seasonal adaptation but desiccating environments. - Journal of Animal Ecology, 84: 817-828

Tammaru, T., Vellau, H., Esperk, T. and Teder, T. 2015. Searching for constraints by cross-species comparison: reaction norms for age and size at maturity in insects. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 114: 296-307

Lindman, L., Remm, J., Saksing, K., Sõber, V., Õunap, E. and Tammaru, T. 2015. Lycaena dispar on its northern distribution limit: an expansive generalist. - Insect Conservation and Diversity, 8: 3-16.

Teder, T., Vellau, H. and Tammaru, T. 2014. Age and size at maturity: a quantitative review of diet-induced reaction norms in insects. - Evolution, 68: 3217-3228

Tomasson, K., Tammaru, T. and Kurina, O. 2014. Harvestmen (Arachnida: Opiliones) in Estonia: results of the Estonian Malaise Trap Project. - Entomologica Fennica, 25: 142-156

Tison, J.-L., Nyström Edmark, V., Sandoval-Castellanos, E., Van Dyck, H., Tammaru, T., Välimäki, P., Dalén, L. and Gotthard, K. 2014. Signature of post-glacial expansion and genetic structure at the northern range limit of the speckled wood butterfly. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 113: 136-148

Kreitsberg, R., Barsiene, J., Freiberg, R., Andreikenaite, L., Tammaru, T., Rumvolt, K. and Tuvikene, A. 2013. Biomarkers of effects of hypoxia and oil-shale contaminated sediments in laboratory-exposed gibel carp (Carassius auratus gibelio). - Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 98: 227-235. DOI

Vellau, H., Leppik, E., Frerot, B. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Detecting a difference in reaction norms for size and time at maturation: pheromone strains of the European corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis: Lepidoptera, Crambidae). - Evolutionary Ecology Research, 15: 589-599. PDF

Vellau H., Sandre S.-L. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Effect of host species on larval growth differs between instars: the case of a geometrid moth (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - European Journal of Entomology, 110: 599-604. PDF

Sandre, S.-L., Kaasik, A., Eulitz, U. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Phenotypic plasticity in a generalist insect herbivore with the combined use of direct and indirect cues. - Oikos, 112: 1626-1635. DOI

Kiik, K., Maran, T., Nagl, A., Ashford, K. and Tammaru, T. 2013. The causes of the low breeding success of European mink (Mustela lutreola) in captivity. - Zoo Biology, 32: 387-393. DOI

Välimäki, P., Kivelä, S. M., Mäenpää, M. I. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Latitudinal clines in alternative life histories in a geometrid moth. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 26: 118-129. DOI

Teder, T., Tammaru, T. and Kaasik, A. 2013. Exploitative competition and coexistence in a parasitoid assemblage. - Population Ecology, 55: 77-86. DOI

Davis, R. B., Õunap, E., Javoiš, J., Gerhold, P. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Degree of specialization is related to body size in herbivorous insects: a phylogenetic confirmation. - Evolution, 67: 583-589. DOI

Lindman, L., Johansson, B., Gotthard, K. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Host plant relationships of an endangered butterfly, Lopinga achine (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) in northern Europe. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 17: 375-383. DOI

Esperk, T., Stefanescu, C., Teder, T., Wiklund, C., Kaasik, A. and Tammaru, T. 2013. Distinguishing between anticipatory and responsive plasticity in a seasonally polyphenic butterfly. - Evolutionary Ecology, 27: 315-332. DOI

Rannap, R., Lõhmus, A., Tammaru, T., Briggs, L., de Vries, W. and Bibelriether, F. 2012. Northern natterjack toads (Bufo calamita) select breeding habitats that promote rapid development. - Behaviour, 149: 737-754. DOI

Tammaru, T. and Teder, T. 2012. Why is body size more variable in stressful conditions: an analysis of a potential proximate mechanism. - Evolutionary Ecology, 26: 1421-1432. DOI

Davis, R.B., Javoiš, J., Pienaar, J., Õunap, E. and Tammaru, T. 2012. Disentangling determinants of egg size in the Geometridae (Lepidoptera) using an advanced phylogenetic comparative method. - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 25: 210-219. DOI

Vellau, H. and Tammaru, T. 2012. Larval crowding leads to unusual reaction norms for size and time at maturity in a geometrid moth. - European Journal of Entomology, 109: 181-186. PDF

Kodandaramaiah, U., Konvicka, M., Tammaru, T., Wahlberg, N. and Gotthard, K. 2012. Phylogeography of the threatened butterfly, the woodland brown Lopinga achine (Nymphalidae: Satyrinae): implications for conservation. - Journal of Insect Conservation, 16: 305-313. DOI

Castellanos, I., Barbosa, P., Zuria, I., Tammaru, T. and Christman, MC. 2011. Contact with caterpillar hairs triggers predator-specific defensive responses. - Behavioral Ecology, 22: 1020-1025. PDF

Remmel, T., Davison, J. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Quantifying predation on folivorous insect larvae: The perspective of life-history evolution. - Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 104: 1-18. DOI

Molleman, F., Javoiš, J., Esperk, T., Teder, T., Davis, R.B. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Sexual differences in weight loss upon eclosion are related to life history strategy in Lepidoptera. - Journal of Insect Physiology, 57: 712-722. DOI

Javoiš, J., Molleman, F. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Quantifying income breeding: using geometrid moths as an example. - Entomologia experimentalis et applicata,139: 187-196. DOI

Õunap, E., Javoiš, J., Viidalepp, J. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Phylogenetic relationships of selected European Ennominae (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - European Journal of Entomology, 108: 267-273. PDF

Sandre S.-L., Tammaru T. and Hokkanen, H. 2011. Pathogen resistance in the moth Orgyia antiqua: direct influence of host plant dominates over the effects of individual condition. - Bulletin of Entomological Research, 101: 107-114. PDF

Remmel, T. and Tammaru, T. 2011. Evidence for the higher importance of signal size over body size in aposematic signaling in insects. - Journal of Insect Science, 11: 4 DOI

Pöykkö, H. and Tammaru, T. 2010. Countergradient vs. cogradient variation in growth and diapause in a lichen feeding moth, Eilema depressum (Lepidoptera: Arctiidae). - Journal of Evolutionary Biology, 23: 1278-1285. DOI

Esperk, T. and Tammaru, T. 2010. Size compensation in moth larvae: attention to larval instars. - Physiological Entomology, 35: 222-230. DOI

Wahlberg, N., Snäll, N., Viidalepp, J., Ruohomäki, K. and Tammaru, T. 2010. The evolution of female flightlessness among Ennominae of the Holarctic forest zone (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). - Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution, 55: 929-938. DOI

Teder, T., Esperk, T., Remmel, T., Sang, A. and Tammaru, T. 2010. Counterintuitive size patterns in bivoltine moths: late-season larvae grow larger despite lower food quality. - Oecologia, 162: 117-125. DOI

Tammaru, T., Esperk, T., Ivanov, V. and Teder, T. 2010. Proximate sources of sexual size dimorphism in insects: locating constraints on larval growth schedules. - Evolutionary Ecology, 24: 161-175. DOI

Remmel, T. and Tammaru, T. 2009. Size-dependent predation risk in tree-feeding insects with different colouration strategies: a field experiment. - Journal of Animal Ecology, 78: 973-980. DOI

Cassel-Lundhagen, A., Tammaru, T., Windig, J. J., Ryrholm, N. and Nylin, S. 2009. Are peripheral populations special? Congruent patterns in two butterfly species. - Ecography, 32: 591-600. DOI

Remmel, T.; Tammaru, T. and Mägi, M. 2009. Seasonal mortality trends in tree-feeding insects: a field experiment. - Ecological Entomology, 34: 98-106. DOI

Besold, J., Schmitt, T., Tammaru T. and Cassel-Lundhagen, A. 2008. Strong genetic impoverishment from the centre of distribution in southern Europe to peripheral Baltic and isolated Scandinavian populations of the pearly heath butterfly. - Journal of Biogeography, 35: 2090-2101. DOI

Teder, T., Tammaru, T. and Esperk, T. 2008. Dependence of phenotypic variance in body size on environmental quality. - American Naturalist, 172: 223-232. DOI

Sandre, S.-L., Tammaru, T., Vanatoa, A. and Esperk, T. 2007. Maintenance of larval color polymorphism in Orgyia antiqua (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): evaluating the role of thermal adaptation. - Environmental Entomology, 36: 1303-1309. PDF

Tammaru, T. and Esperk, T. 2007. Growth allometry of immature insects: larvae do not grow exponentially. - Functional Ecology, 21: 1099-1105. DOI

Sandre, S.-L., Tammaru, T. and Mänd, T. 2007. Size-dependent colouration in larvae of Orgyia antiqua (Lepidoptera: Lymantriidae): a trade-off between warning effect and detectability? - European Journal of Entomology, 104: 745-752. PDF

Esperk, T., Tammaru T. and Nylin S. 2007. Intraspecific variability in number of larval instars in insects. - Journal of Economic Entomology, 100: 627-645. PDF

Sandre, S.-L., Tammaru T., Esperk T., Julkunen-Tiitto R. and Mappes J. 2007 Carotenoid-based colour polyphenism in a moth species: search for fitness correlates. - Entomologia experimentalis et applicata, 124: 269-277. DOI

Esperk T., Tammaru T., Nylin, S. and Teder, T. 2007. Achieving high sexual size dimorphism in insects: females add instars. - Ecological Entomology, 32: 243-256. DOI

Viidalepp, J., Tammaru, T., Snäll, N., Ruohomäki, K. and Wahlberg, N. 2007. Cleorodes Warren, 1894 does not belong in the tribe Boarmiini (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - European Journal of Entomology, 104: 303-309. PDF

Snäll, N., Tammaru, T., Wahlberg, N., Viidalepp, J., Ruohomäki, K., Savontaus, M.-L. and Huoponen K. 2007. Phylogenetic relationships of the tribe Operophterini (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): a case study of the evolution of female flightlessness. - Biological Journal of Linnean Society , 92: 241-252. DOI

Mänd T., Tammaru T. and Mappes J. 2007. Size dependent predation risk in cryptic and conspicuous insects - Evolutionary Ecology, 21: 485-498. DOI

Javoiš J. and Tammaru T. 2006. The effect of egg load on readiness to accept a low-quality hostplant is weak and age dependent in a geometrid moth - Ecological Entomology, 31: 597-600. DOI

Esperk, T. and Tammaru, T. 2006. Determination of female-biased sexual size dimorphism in moths with a variable instar number: the role of additional instars. - European Journal of Entomology, 103: 575-586. PDF

Tammaru, T. and Javoiš, J. 2005. When being alive implies being safe: variation in mortality rates can cause oviposition selectivity to increase with age. - Oikos, 111: 649-653. DOI

Javoiš, J., Tammaru, T. and Käär, M. 2005. Oviposition in an eruptive moth species, Yponomeuta evonymellus, is insensitive to the population density experienced during the larval period. - Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 115: 379-386. DOI

Teder, T. and Tammaru, T. 2005. Sexual size dimorphism within species increases with body size in insects. - Oikos, 108: 321-334. DOI

Tammaru, T., Nylin, S., Ruohomäki, K. and Gotthard, K. 2004. Compensatory responses in lepidopteran larvae: a test of growth rate maximisation. - Oikos, 107: 352-362. DOI

Barbosa, P., Tammaru, T. and Caldas, A. 2004. Is parasitism of numerically dominant species in Macrolepidopteran assemblages independent of their abundance? - Basic and Applied Ecology, 5: 357-366. DOI

Esperk, T. and Tammaru, T. 2004. Does the "investment principle" model explain moulting strategies in Lepidopteran larvae? - Physiological Entomology, 29: 56-66. DOI

Javoiš, J. and Tammaru, T. 2004. Reproductive decisions are sensitive to cues of life expectancy: the case of a moth. - Animal Behaviour, 68: 249-255. DOI

Teder, T. and Tammaru, T. 2003. Short-term indirect interactions between two moth (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) species mediated by shared parasitoids: the benefit of being scarce. - European Journal of Entomology, 100: 323-328. PDF

Cassel, A. and Tammaru, T. 2003. Allozyme variability in central, peripheral and isolated populations of the scarce heath (Coenonympha hero: Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae); implications for conservation. - Conservation Genetics, 4: 83-93. PDF

Tammaru, T., Esperk, T. and Castellanos, I. 2002. No evidence for costs of being large in females of Orgyia spp. (Lepidoptera, Lymantriidae): larger is always better. - Oecologia, 133: 430-438. PDF

Teder, T. and Tammaru, T. 2002. Cascading effects of variation in plant vigour on the relative performance of insect herbivores and their parasitoids. - Ecological Entomology, 27: 94-104. DOI

Tanhuanpää, M., Ruohomäki, K., Turchin, P., Ayres M. P., Bylund, H., Kaitaniemi, P., Tammaru, T. and Haukioja, E. 2002. Population cycles of the autumnal moth in Fennoscandia. - pp. 142-154 in: Population cycles. The case for trophic interactions (A.A.Berryman ed.). Oxford University Press. GOOGLE BOOKS

Teder, T. and Tammaru, T. 2001. Large larvae of a flush-feeding moth (Epirrita autumnata, Lepidoptera: Geometridae) are not at a higher risk of parasitism: implications for the moth's life history. - European Journal of Entomology, 98: 277-282. PDF

Tammaru, T., Tanhuanpää, M., Ruohomäki, K. and Vanatoa, A. 2001. Autumnal moth - why autumnal? - Ecological Entomology, 26: 646-654. DOI

Tammaru, T. and Javoiš, J. 2000. Responses of ovipositing moths (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) to host plant deprivation: life-history aspects and implications for population dynamics. - Environmental Entomology, 29: 1002-1010. PDF

Ruohomäki, K., Tanhuanpää, M., Ayres, M. P., Kaitaniemi, P., Tammaru, T. and Haukioja, E. 2000. Causes of cyclicity of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): grandiose theory and tedious practice. - Population Ecology, 42: 211-223. PDF

Tammaru, T., Ruohomäki, K. and Montola, M. 2000. Crowding-induced plasticity in Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae): weak evidence of specific modifications in reaction norms. - Oikos 90: 171-181. PDF

Gyllenberg, M., Hemminki, J., and Tammaru, T. (order alphabetical) 1999. Allee effects can both conserve and create spatial heterogeneity in population densities. - Theoretical Population Biology, 56: 231-242. PDF

Parmesan, C., Ryrholm, N., Stefanescu, C., Hill, J. K., Thomas, C. D., Descimon, H., Huntley, B., Kaila, L., Kullberg, J., Tammaru, T., Tennent, J., Thomas, J. A. and Warren, M. 1999. Poleward shifts in geographical ranges of butterfly species associated with regional warming. - Nature, 399: 579-583. PDF

Tammaru, T. and Hõrak, P. 1999. Should one invest more in larger broods? Not necessarily. - Oikos, 85: 574-581. PDF

Teder, T., Tammaru, T. and Pedmanson, R. 1999. Patterns of host use in solitary parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae): field evidence from a homogenous habitat. - Ecography, 22: 79-86. PDF

Kaitaniemi, P., Ruohomäki, K., Tammaru, T. and Haukioja, E. 1999. Induced resistance of host tree foliage during and after a natural insect outbreak. - Journal of Animal Ecology, 68: 382-389. DOI

Tammaru, T., Ruohomäki, K. and Saloniemi, I. 1999. Within-season variability of pupal period in the autumnal moth: a bet-hedging strategy? - Ecology, 80: 1666-1677. PDF

Tammaru, T. 1998. Determination of adult size in a folivorous moth: constraints at instar level? - Ecological Entomology 23: 80-89. PDF

Ruohomäki, K., Virtanen, T., Kaitaniemi, P. and Tammaru, T. 1997. Old mountain birches at high altitudes are prone to outbreaks of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera: Geometridae). - Environmental Entomology, 26: 1096-1104. DOI

Tammaru, T. and Haukioja, E. 1996. Capital breeders and income breeders among Lepidoptera - consequences to population dynamics. - Oikos, 77: 561-564. PDF

Tammaru, T., Kaitaniemi, P. and Ruohomäki, K. 1996. Realized fecundity in Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae): relation to body size and consequences to population dynamics. - Oikos, 77: 407-416. PDF

Hõrak, P. and Tammaru, T. 1996. Between-year variation in breeding conditions biases heritability estimates for body size in birds. - Ardea, 84: 127-135.

Tammaru, T., Ruohomäki, K. and Saikkonen, K. 1996. Components of male fitness in relation to body size in Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). - Ecological Entomology, 21: 185-192. DOI

Ruohomäki, K., Kaitaniemi, P., Kozlov, M., Tammaru, T. and Haukioja E. 1996. Density and performance of Epirrita autumnata (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) along three air pollution gradients in northern Europe. - Journal of Applied Ecology, 33: 773-785. PDF

Tammaru, T., Virtanen, T., Ruohomäki, K. and Kaila, L. 1995. Eupithecia veratraria Herrich-Schäffer, 1850 new to Scandinavia, with the redescription of E. veratraria ssp. arctica Viidalepp, 1974 (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) - Nota Lepidopterologica, 18: 297-303.

Tammaru, T., Kaitaniemi, P. and Ruohomäki, K. 1995. Oviposition choices of Epirrita autumnata in relation to its eruptive population dynamics. - Oikos, 74: 296-304. PDF

Zhu J. W., Löfstedt, C., Philipp, P., Francke, W., Tammaru, T. and Haukioja, E. 1995. A sex pheromone component novel to the Geometridae identified from Epirrita autumnata. - Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 75: 159-164. DOI


II. Butterflies and moths here and there

Kaila, L., Pedmanson, R. & Tammaru, T. 1999. Eestis esineb kaks oblikavaksikuliiki (Lepidoptera, Geometridae). /Two species of Timandra (Lepidoptera, Geometridae) occur in Estonia./ - Lepidopteroloogiline Informatsioon 11: 7-8 (in Estonian, with English summary).

Tammaru, T., Virtanen, T., Ruohomäki, K. 1996. Eupithecia veratraria (Geometridae) Pohjois-Norjassa. /Eupithecia veratraria (Geometridae) in northern Norway./ - Baptria 21: 123-126 (in Finnish, with English summary).

Tammaru, T., Viidalepp, J., Pedmanson, R. 1994. Horisme aemulata tavattu Utsjoelta - mistä se oli peräisin? /Horisme aemulata [Lepidoptera, Geometridae] found at Utsjoki - where did it come from?/ - Baptria 19: 64-68 (in Finnish, with English summary).

Skvortsov, V., Tammaru, T. 1994. Cucullia praecana Eestis: levik, eluviis ja arengujärkude kirjeldus. /Cucullia praecana Ev. [Lepidoptera, Noctuidae] in Estonia, with description of the preimaginal stages./ - Lepidopteroloogiline Informatsioon 9: 9-10 (in Estonian, with English summary).

Tammaru, T. 1993. Kassitapusuru sisserännetest Eestisse, eriti 1992. aastal. /On immigration of Agrius convonvuli L. [Lepidoptera: Sphingidae] into Estonia, especially in the year 1992./ - Lepidopteroloogiline Informatsioon 8: 11-15 (in Estonian, with English summary).


III. Home-made theories

Tammaru, T. 1999. Hea ja halva mäluga elukäiguomadused: evolutsioonilisi järeldusi. /Life histrory traits with good or bad memory: implications for evolutionary theory./ - Schola Biotheoretica XXV: 98-100 (in Estonian).

Tammaru, T. 1998. Diskreetsed kasvujärgud putukavastsetel: ontogeneesi iseärasus, mis piirab elukäiguevolutsiooni. /Discrete instars of insect larvae: a peculiarity of ontogenesis which posies a constraint on life-history evolution./ - Schola Biotheoretica XXIV: 107-110 (in Estonian).

Tammaru, T. 1997. Mitmeaastase elutsükliga putukad - metapopulatsioon ajas? /Insects with a multiannual life cycle: a metapopulation in time?/ - Schola Biotheoretica XXIII: 12-14, Tartu (in Estonian).

Tammaru, T. 1995. Liblikas tunneb ära rööviku toidutaime - mis siis kui ei ja miks ei? /A moth selects for its host plant - what if not and why not?/ - Schola Biotheoretica XXI: 37-38, Tartu (in Estonian). PDF

Tammaru, T. 1993. W. Petersen as a biologist-theoretician. - In: Lectures in theoretical biology: the second stage. Estonian Academy of Sciences. Tallinn, pp. 122 - 127

Tammaru, T. 1993. Biparentality as a creator of non-uniformity in temporal structure of a population. - Folia Baeriana 6. Estonian Academy of Sciences. Tartu, pp. 158-163.

Tammaru, T. 1991. Uniparentaalse paljunemise ökoloogilisi aspekte. /Ecological aspects of the uniparental reproduction./ - Schola Biotheoretica XVII: 31-38, Tartu (in Estonian). PDF

Tammaru, T. 1990. Surmast geenivaliku teooria valguses. /Death in the light of the gene selection theory/. - Schola Biotheoretica XVI: 12-17, Tartu (in Estonian). PDF