The national identity of Estonians and the Estonian Society in St. Petersburg

Liina Rootalu 

In St. Petersburg people live in significant cultural diversity. The main problem of the following article is why national identity disappears, changes or remains important in such conditions.

In St. Petersburg there still exists a vigorous Estonian community, who are associated by the Estonian language and strong national feeling, whereby the language is a key symbol of being an Estonian. Most of the Estonians here were born in the first half of the 20th century in the district of Leningrad and the city of Leningrad (as the district was called at that time). All of them identify themselves as Estonians in Russia. Some of them are the representatives of the third or fourth generation of local Estonians. I had the honour of talking to especially strong personalities. Even in the hardest times they got a thoroughly nationalistic education in their Estonian homes, and this has remained an objective to this day. The land of their ancestors is dear to them, but quite unfamiliar and envisioned as ideal. Estonian history is poorly known, but the roots of one's family are known quite thoroughly.

I compare them with Estonians who were born and went to school in Estonia, but due to different reasons have settled down in St. Petersburg. With this group it was interesting to follow the immediate experiences of adapting to a strange culture space. They are immigrants of the first generation, their notions and standpoints are slightly different. Decisions that are based on emotions weaken as generations alter. Nearly all of them have managed to integrate into St. Petersburg, but they have not assimilated. Most of them are university graduates. For them Estonia will be their homeland where they would like to return to, but professional and family bonds keep them in St. Petersburg.

In the Centre of Independent Sociological Research in St. Petersburg different ethnic groups living in the city have been studied. In the course of such studies in 1998 I interviewed thirty-one Estonians living in St. Petersburg and recorded longer autobiographical narratives. Nineteen interviewees were born and raised in St. Petersburg or in the country near the city, twelve were born in Estonia and got their primary education there. I found the interviewees from the Estonian Society, but to find suitable ones, I had to talk to nearly a hundred people. The main requirement was the Estonian language skill. Guiding questions were used, especially about the origin of parents and childhood. People were willing to talk, because everything concerning being an Estonian is very important for them. They have identified themselves as Estonians and we had thorough discussions about why nationalistic self-consciousness is so essential for them. To understand the narrated biographies, it is important to know the socio-political and economic background of Russia at that time.



What were the historical and political conditions in the recent century that influenced the Estonians in St. Petersburg?

The more extensive emigration of Estonians from the native territory of Estonia began in the middle of the 19th century. The ancestors of my informants emigrated at the very end of the 19th century. The reasons for settling in Russia are more or less exactly known. In the tumult of World War II few literary sources have survived. Yet some photos have been collected.

Family photo from the 1920s. Author's private collection.

The ancestors did not leave Estonia only because of financial pressure. According to photos and memories it seems that they were active compatriots. Estonian schools, Lutheran church and different societies formed the basis of cultural life. Qualified teachers were invited from Estonia, after classes they led the activities of choirs, orchestras and drama clubs. Thanks to tight relations with homeland people were connected with the development of Estonia. Books and newspapers were subscribed from Estonia; relatives were frequently visited there. The climax of cultural and economic prosperity was in the first half of the 1910s.

It is difficult to determine how many Estonians have lived in St. Petersburg in different times. The pre-Revolution (i.e. before 1917) censuses did not register people's nationality. Language use was recorded, but at the beginning of the 20th century part of the Estonians were multilingual. According to the 1910 census there were more than 25,000 Estonians, before the October Revolution at least 50,000-60,000 Estonian-speaking people. The later censuses also recorded people's nationality, for example according to the 1926 census 154,660 Estonians lived in St. Petersburg.

During the civil war that started in 1918 Estonian settlements suffered great economic losses. The situation changed: many people left the rural places for St. Petersburg. Language was preserved where Estonians concentrated in a community; mixed marriages favoured the regress of Estonian language use. During Soviet times religion was banned, religious procedures were still performed in homes for some time. After World War II there has not been an Estonian school in St. Petersburg.

Tartu Peace Treaty (1918) provided the right for the Estonians living in the territory of Russia to repatriate to Estonia within one year. Later the deadline was postponed. Many people grasped the opportunity.

At the peak of Soviet repression in 1937-1938 a great part of the Estonians were executed. On 15 April 1938 NKVD issued the resolution to continue the destruction of diversionists. The list of dangerous nations (diversionists) also included the Estonians. According to the census of 1939 15,200 Estonians were living in St. Petersburg. At that time many of them started to conceal their nationality, children were registered as Russians, parents did not deliberately pass on their language and customs. Since that period the massive assimilation of Estonians began. After World War II the grown-up generations of Estonians in St. Petersburg were deprived of the opportunity for education in the Estonian language.

In 1943 the German occupying powers brought nearly two thousand Estonians from the district of Leningrad into Estonia. Most of them were country people who were in the way of the war. Some of them returned to Russia after the war.

A new flow of Estonians from Russia into Soviet Estonia started in the course of implementing the Soviet occupation politics in 1945-1946. The joining of Estonia into the Soviet Union meant relief to the Estonians in St. Petersburg, as they could again communicate with their relatives living in Estonia. They clearly understand why the general attitude in Estonia to immigrants from Russia is negative. Yet they are insulted by such attitude of their relatives. They find that among immigrants there are lots of nice people who are friendly to Estonians and were also deprived of everything because of the Soviet power.

Since 1950 within some years young specialists, graduates of the Tallinn Polytechnic Institute were forced to go to work in Russia. That is why some Estonians moved to St. Petersburg. A flow of even more Estonians into St. Petersburg is connected with their studying there. The aim of the post-war domestic politics was to build up Soviet culture and overall Russianisation. Close attention was paid to the training of young industrial specialists. Each Russian university reserved several places for students from other Soviet republics. The choice of specialities was extensive and the respective positions could offer various possibilities. Quite a number of young people who were choosing a job opted for studies in St. Petersburg, moreover, it was close to Estonia.

Earlier people moved from the country of residence together with their families, now they went to St. Petersburg alone. After the end of studies some stayed to work in St. Petersburg and married locals. These people were among the most active members of the former Baltikum society, and young Estonians who were born in Russia joined them. The latter ones were especially eager to study more of the language and customs, in addition to knowledge acquired at home.

The Baltikumi society was founded by the Estonian, Latvian and Lithuanian students studying in St. Petersburg during the 'mild' times of Khrushchev. In each university there was a leader who joined together the representatives of the three republics. There was a dance group and a choir in the society, who had their dancing or singing rehearsals in Gorky Culture House every week. The society got the folk costumes of the three republics. Following the model of the Baltic universities of that time the members of the Baltikum society also had their caps - students' caps of purple velvet, with a rosette; the Estonians' caps were edged in white and light blue ribbon. Other old Baltic students' customs were followed, too. Every autumn there was a festive ceremony - reception of 'freshmen', where the new students got their caps.

At that time national societies could not be officially registered. Such associations were not recommended at all, their activities were observed watchfully. When larger conventions were organised by the society, national weddings, for instance, were staged as a smokescreen. As Baltikum was primarily a student organisation, after graduation the members lost their connections with the society, particularly when they returned to their homeland.

At the end of the 1980s the National Front emerged in Russia as well. In connection with the movement of freedom in the Baltic republics and the complicated political relations between Estonia and Russia the inflow of young people into St. Petersburg decreased sharply. Baltikum ceased its activities. The Estonians in St. Petersburg have always stood for the independence of Estonia. Although national borders obstruct communication and co-operation with Estonia, Estonian independence is regarded as justified.

The present Estonian Society was also initiated by students, this time by those who were studying there during the perestroika. In a popular TV programme and over St. Petersburg radio an announcement was made to all Estonians living in the city to get together at a definite time and address. Many came with joy and laid the foundation for a new society. The society has adopted statutes and was registered in 1992. Unfortunately records have not been kept consistently and it is therefore not possible to ascertain the exact number of members, but an average of 150 people attend the general meetings and there are around 20 active members. Today the society is very varied; there are people of different ages and motivation. In recent years the consulate has spread information about the society. Anybody interested in Estonian culture can become a member. As the members come to the events with families, people of other nationalities can be met there too. In general meetings Russian is spoken and this has caused a split between Estonian-speaking and non-Estonian-speaking members. Speaking only Estonian and communication in a smaller group is more important for those who grew up in Estonia. Gradually, 10-16 people have formed their own group, where belong Estonian-speaking people who were born in St. Petersburg. They find that they have to speak Russian everywhere anyway.

What do they do in the society? Mainly there are cultural events, like celebrating national and calendar holidays (Christmas, Independence Day, etc.). Popular lectures are given of Estonian history and literature, but these are delivered in Russian and those who have studied in Estonia do not go there, because they know the material even better. Within some years information published by the Estonian press was regularly spread. These evenings were attended with interest. Because of lack of space such events were discontinued.

Six or eight young people once came eagerly to the society and even staged a play in Estonian, but due to further studies they do not have time for that and their interests have changed. Moreover, they are not interested in older people's dry meetings and lectures. The young people grew up in mixed families and they know Estonian poorly or not at all. What was important for parents, is not so for the children any more. Even those who have been in the former Baltikum society say that the atmosphere in the present Estonian Society is different. In their opinion people now come together to drink tea. They drink their tea, put the cups in their bags and go away. This estimate has a touch of nostalgia about it.

The Estonian Society is valued because of the opportunity it provides to get acquainted with compatriots. Mass events are not favoured. At present the dominant members in the society are ethnical Estonians, but they do not speak the language nor know Estonian customs. Yet they maintain that they are Estonians. And really, they are not Russians either! Their identity has altered in Soviet realism (or as it sometimes seems, in false mirror). It is miraculous that in the years of total destruction they managed to survive at all. Such people should be conceived as the mental victims of the era.

Members of the Estonian Society in St. Petersburg in 2000. Photo: Liina Rootalu.

According to the board of the society in St. Petersburg Estonian Society cannot be developed like in the wealthy communities of other countries. They fancy that all Estonians in western countries speak Estonian, dance and sing in folk costumes. As a result of such imagination in the last three years the members of the St. Petersburg Estonian-speaking group have started to make national costumes and come to learn in Estonia how they are exactly made. They got the idea from Sweden and have found support in Estonia. The same people organised a folk dance group. So we may speak about the influence of western exiles to Estonians in St. Petersburg.

The society does not have a regular source of finances, and that is why their economic situation is poor. There are some occasional sponsors and from time to time support is received from Estonia through the consulate and some foundations. Yet the Estonians in St. Petersburg do not have as much money or business opportunities as the emigrants in western countries are thought to have.

Now and then the press has spoken about the Estonian school in St. Petersburg, but during Soviet years there was no Estonian school there. In one Russian school Estonian language was taught as an optional subject from 1993-1995. Free Estonian language courses are very important, and attract even the young. Presently there is a language group for children and two for adults. Mainly older people attend the latter ones. Therefore Estonian language skills do not develop really, despite all the efforts. The teachers are well qualified and get their salary from the Estonian Ministry of Education.

The Estonian congregation of the Lutheran church with its approximately one hundred members is active. Usually about twenty serious believers, who are Estonian-speakers, attend the services. The pastor comes regularly from Estonia. The choir of the Estonian Society acts as the church choir during services. A few years ago the congregation started to clean and restore Jaani church, financial aid for that comes from Finland and Estonia. The Jaani church was built by Estonians at the beginning of the 20th century, in Soviet years the building was used by a laboratory.

In connection with social and political changes the migration of Estonians into St. Petersburg has nearly broken off. So the Estonian Society cannot grow any more. This national group is ageing. The further future of the Estonian Society is uncertain. The target group of spirited messages consists of pensioners who have nostalgic longing for Estonia and for idealised Estonian nationalism. It seems that the same tendency is in the development of all the Estonian organisations of diaspora.



Each nation has its own common symbols and myths of ancestors. These are connected with historical memory. Everyone thinks it important who the surrounding people consider 'myself' to be. An individual may consequently have different social 'egos', depending on how many different referent groups there are. In the course of time various social roles and attitudes are taken over. If a person is bilingual and he has two different but strongly affecting fields of influence, two different self-awarenesses may develop. In a way, it may favour the intellectual development, enable greater objectivity due to expanded scope of comparison. On the other hand, however, in similar conditions a split personality may evolve. Barriers of adjustment result from belonging to one's preferential group (one's own nationality). In the homes of emigrants often insecurity can be found, alienation from the society they have come to. Sometimes such instability is also transferred to the children. Social marginality may arise in such a way and sometimes difficulties are experienced when starting close relationships. Inner struggles occur in the question of identity and self-determination. The person is aware of his origin and it disturbs his soul. Oversensitiveness towards the surrounding environment develops. It cannot be said that it is true about all the Estonians in St. Petersburg. It depends on which generation of Estonians in Russia one belongs to and how much of one's patriotism time has ground off.

Another possibility is that one alienates from his country of origin, because the society he or his ancestors come from has not supported him for a longer period of time. Cosmopolitanism develops. One becomes estranged from his culture group without adjusting sufficiently to another. So one remains in the marginal areas of both cultures, or even a new and original synthesis comes into being. The latter case presumes good knowledge of both cultures, which is more characteristic to intellectuals.

It is important for a person to belong to a definite social environment. During lifetime the position of national identity changes in the hierarchy of socially important values, for example it becomes less important than one's profession. Intellectuals have the strongest national self-awareness. Yet the learned class was most consistently repressed in Soviet Russia.

There is an understanding that Estonians abroad carried the main load of political struggle during the Soviet years. Estonians in their homeland fought for the preservation and deepening of Estonian identity. But the Estonians in Russia? Partly they feel that they were under the hardest external pressure (collectivisation and repression began in Russia already in the 1930s), but they still made every effort to preserve their national identity in themselves, being completely separated, sometimes completely alone in their struggle. Although after World War II they could have come to Estonia, they were not regarded as really 'ours' in Estonia. There is a general belief among the Estonians in St. Petersburg that in Estonia they are treated as 'third-class' Estonians, while the best are living abroad and the second 'class' in Estonia. At present they feel neglected by the government: it is very difficult to get a visa to come to Estonia, because they are not citizens of Estonia. Citizenship, however, is not granted to them as they were born in Russia. What is more, the visa is very expensive. This is like a reproach because of the situation: children and grandchildren are not guilty because their businesslike ancestors left Estonia not during the time of Estonian independence and not for the right place!

The historical change of context determines the development of the present image and future trends of Estonian patriotism. The Estonians who have settled abroad have now abundant possibilities of political and cultural contacts with Estonia. The Estonians living in Russia are now deprived of these possibilities altogether. Personal close contacts with Estonia have significantly decreased after the border was laid. Periodicals in the Estonian language cannot be subscribed regularly any more. There is sharp isolation. Such a situation reduces Estonian identity and increases ambivalence and marginality in St. Petersburg even more. Does the above mean that nothing depends on 'us' anyway? What has led to such opposition?

Before the Soviet power Estonians in St. Petersburg and in its surrounds were not an isolated group in Estonian cultural history. The contacts of Estonian and Russian intellectuals continue even now, to some degree, but they still exist. The customs and language of emigrants have levelled over the long time. The cultural traditions of the beginning of the 20th century are as if conserved and therefore they have survived longer than in Estonia. Folk songs and dances have a stylised form. They are carefully remembered, reproduced and protected from changes. Yet similar stereotypical national values cannot be endlessly reproduced without turning weird in the end. In the opinion of young people they are out-dated anyway!

Many lack the true and continuous information about the processes that Estonia has undergone and is undergoing at all. Crucial situations in public processes are rapid and large-scale in both countries. That is why many Estonians in St. Petersburg consider it their task to speak in Russia about what is going on in Estonia and to introduce modern Estonian culture. No nation as a whole can be won to the side of another nation as a whole; only individual persons can be affected.

It is complained that being an Estonian in St. Petersburg is like being between two fires: on the one hand there are problems with Russians in Estonia and on the other, in St. Petersburg they hear scornful expressions about Estonians. Such conflicts appeared particularly after the break-up of the Soviet Union.

At the same time it is nice to see Russians from Estonia, who come to study in St. Petersburg and study at the language courses of the Estonian Society, in order to later pass the exam in Estonia and become an Estonian citizen. In their opinion language is a part of the culture of a country, it has to be respected and acquired. In recent years several Estonian students of the University of Tartu have come to St. Petersburg to practice. Hope remains that just the exchange of students will help to enliven the cultural relations between Estonia and Russia.



How is it possible to elicit the disclosure of nationalistic feelings? One possibility is to observe what, how and in what manner is spoken (or not spoken) of nationality and national relations. The experience of an emigrant sharpens one's self-awareness as an Estonian. Identification with one's own nation is a process, which is never final, which is in progress all the time. We know who we are only when we know who we are not.

The number of biographies I have dealt with is too small to make larger generalisations, but sufficient to draw a general picture of ethnic self-determination. The interviewees sense 'common origin'. There is an opposition: 'we' and 'the others'. The recognition of national identity may be seen as a reaction to external conditions, contacts with another culture, and often to the awareness of a conflict of cultures.

I give some examples of opinions about Estonians and Russians that are quite typical.

Anyway I live here better than as a Russian among Estonians. It is not comparable. I as an Estonian have never been insulted here. Only when I came here to study and I talked about having seen the 1949 deportation, I was called a fascist behind my back. In Russia what disturbs me most is lack of order. People throw trash everywhere, forests are soiled. Here we do not have such haughtiness as in Estonia. In Estonia people are like in shells, it is more difficult to communicate with them. Afterwards you start to talk and everything is normal. People are more reserved, they help strangers less. Here you can contact with anybody more easily. (Aino, born 1941)

I practically go to Estonian-speaking meetings only. It is nice to be in such smaller company with the Estonian language and Estonian habits, Estonian customs and songs. We get together mostly with families now. Wherever there is joy or trouble, we help each other. There are five or six of us in closer contacts. We do handicraft together, we made national costumes, in which we performed in Stockholm for the first time. (Aino, born 1940)

There is still difference between Estonians and Russians. I also want that Estonians were Estonians and Russians were Russians. I am frustrated about my son, he married a Russian woman and now his sons have Russian wives. Such double fools. Or that Russian wife should learn the Estonian language, too. Nobody forced me to choose an Estonian wife. You have to have your national pride. (Robert, born 1906)

I am not a hundred percent Estonian in the sense that sometimes my attitudes and opinions are different. I understood it already when I went to Estonia after the prison camp. That time was a great suffering for me. I did not like the opinions of common people. Of course, I was not together with the Estonian elite there. Afterwards I got acquainted with the Estonian elite, too. I do not want to say anything negative, but our wants and standpoints were different. Here people are more cosmopolitan, more broad-minded. Yet I am not a Russian either. I do not accept several things. Russian culture is higher than Estonian culture. I see everything through Russian culture. Here I do not like the drinking, endless scandals. Of course one forgives, the others submit, but I do not see the point in yielding, I just turn my back and go away. I cannot reform people, but I am grateful to Russian culture. This government has done me harm, but I will always remember and this is a hundred per cent truth that if I had stayed in Estonia I would not have seen more than 6 years at school. Here I got higher education and I learnt the Russian language and I even became an intellectual. (Hilda, born 1918)

We often went to the Estonian Society from school. We had wonderful parties there. There was a good drama club, like real theatre. We, the smaller ones, were also used on the stage if needed. I learnt to play the guitar there, and sang in the choir. Lovely, beautiful ladies were there. They were just special. At school the children who went to the Estonian Society were more trusted. They were more studious. There were special children's circles in the society. Then the chase for those leaders began. There were terrible tragedies. And so it all fell apart. And then after all war began, too. (Ester, born 1922)

I do not have a nationality; I am a kind of a marginal person. Most of all I would still like to be Estonian, because I know this language. I spent the major part of my life on translating Estonian. (Nora, born 1922)

I worked at school from 1932 to 37, and then the Estonian classes were dispelled. Siim was taken and killed of course. Nearly all men were arrested. Pupils were sent to Russian classes. I got a job in a Russian school. I started to teach Russian. I was lucky that the pupils were so kind and friendly. In the Estonian school I taught many children from the orphanage. They are slightly different. (Helmi, born 1903)

I always say I am an Estonian. I have my own surname. At that time I was wise enough to keep my own name. Everywhere they call Estonians "chukhna". Who wants to be derogative says so. And I do not deny I am "chukhna" and I do not see anything bad about it. If I can help Estonians, I do so as much as I can. And Estonians are nice to me, they always come when I need help. (Klaara, born 1923)

When mother died I had no one to speak Estonian with. At first my grandchildren did not want to, but now they say they should have learnt the language. My daughter learnt Estonian, but she does not speak. (Leena, born 1923)

I went to the language courses in the society. I wanted to know more new words. These courses were of great help. We could speak more to each other. I read Estonian freely. If it were possible, I would like to go to live in Estonia. I would like to be there better. Estonians are more hard working, more responsible. Russians do have those qualities too, but not as much. I like to be precise. Each work should be done so that it would not have to be redone. (Vambola, born 1929)

Estonians have always work to do and they always feel they have to do and worry about something. They do not reason if they are allowed to do it or not, they try to do it and do with delight. Estonians are hard-working people. Russians talk more than do. If your tongue is untied, your hands are tied. You cannot do many things at a time. If you tie your tongue, your hands are free. (Leoniida, born 1932)

Many Russians do not accept Estonians. I went to school and spoke with my mother in Estonian. Then they started to laugh at me, but I did not take any notice. I said I had two native languages - Estonian and Russian. Why should I speak only Russian! And afterwards all the girls were very polite to me. I showed them they were wrong, why should I! (Alja, born 1935)

Each nation has its own values and distinctive features that people have to take every effort to preserve like every biological species. The same goes for being an Estonian. I think nature is part of culture. (Juri, born 1946)

The independence of Estonia, it might be said, is the greatest pleasure in my life. My Russian friends know and love me like I am. I have always been an Estonian in St. Petersburg and they know and accept me as such. In teenage years I had communication problems in Russian school. (Mihkel, born 1953)

Why do Russians relate so well to Estonians here in St. Petersburg? I answer in the Russians' words that they are used to the Estonians who live and work here together with them and by their side, they are very decent people. The peculiarity of Russians, and their ancestors' already, is their soul, I think. It is broad and very friendly. I try to find the good sides in both Russians and Estonians. What I like in Estonians: attitude towards life, diligence, activeness. I should say the Estonians I like are intelligent, educated, they love life. Estonians are careful by nature. It still seems I am more attracted to Estonians than Russians, although I have many Russian friends. (Margarita, born 1947)

Russian culture has influenced the culture of Estonians in St. Petersburg within over a hundred years, from linguistic and cultural loans to complete dissolution in Russian lifestyle. This process has taken place over several generations. As mentioned already, it was caused by severe political and economic conditions. In the middle of the century disappeared the possibility to obtain education in mother tongue, which is one of the most determining factors in the development of patriotism.

Today home is the most important aspect of the ethnic self-determination of Estonians in St. Petersburg. National identity is acquired in the process of primary socialisation, therefore in the communication with closest relatives in home environment. The foundation for social behaviour is laid in childhood and mother tongue as a symbol has its role here. Religion and church were not so important for the Estonians in St. Petersburg, but Protestant ethics has, evidently through homes, influenced even the most common Estonian families.

National identity is a singular conception of the world and behavioural logic of a nation. National individuality is expressed in the most different ways, so when you study it, it seems that the subject of research is constantly slipping away! In harsh crucial periods modes of behaviour may change beyond recognition, which does not associate with the peculiarities of the individual level only, but we have to deal with general regularities. In this context it would be interesting to do a comparative research of the value systems of Estonian emigrants in different countries. What are the main, fixed attitudes that form the cultural and psychological structure of a nation and that have been lost during changes of time and place? It would be interesting to record what will be unchanged in a new situation, what is discarded, what changes its form of expression and in what way. Within a national culture we can meet social layers and psychological types with opposite attitudes, who are linked by the language, similar conditions of growing up and ties with their ancestors' country. In emigration time and the surrounding culture will do their job and the attitudes of the third-fourth generation to being an Estonian are not as clear any more as their parents' attitudes. The more there are external differences in the behaviour of a nation, the more fruitful should be the research.

Translated by Ann Kuslap




 Name Year of birth  Education Generation in Russia Profession (pensioners - before retiring)
 1. Aino M.  1941  Higher  1  Coach
 2. Aino P.  1916  Secondary-vocational  1 Teacher of dance and home economics
 3. Aino T.  1940  Higher  1  Chemist
 4. Arvo  1949  Secondary-vocational  1  Car mechanic
 5. Eino  1930  Higher  1  Civil engineer
 6. Hille  1943  Higher  1  Coach
 7. Jaan  1938  Higher  1  Geologist
  8. Leida  1931  Higher  1  Glass designer
 9. Liidia  1954  Higher  1  Russian philologist
 10. Linda  1926  Higher  1  Chemist
 11. Margarita  1947  Higher  1  Russian philologist
 12. Viiu  1940  Higher  1  Chemist
 13. Alja  1935  Secondary  3  Telephone operator
 14 .Elviira  1943  Higher  2  Engineer
 15. Erna  1932 Secondary-vocational  3   Factory worker
 16. Ester  1922  Secondary-vocational  3  Geodesist
 17. Helga  1922  Higher  3  German philologist
 18. Helmi  1903  Higher  3  Teacher of primary classes
 19. Hilda  1918  Higher  2  Historian
 20. Juri  1946  Higher  2  Historian
 21. Klaara  1923  Secondary  3  Bookkeeper
 22. Leena G.  1958  Higher  2  Engineer
 23. Leena V.  1923  7 years  3  Factory worker
 24. Leida  1940  Higher  3  Mechanisation of agriculture
 25. Leoniida  1932  Higher  3  Constructor of sewn products
 26. Lilian  1925  Secondary-vocational  3  Artist-decorator
 27. Mihkel  1953  Higher  3  Mining engineer
 28. Nora  1922  Higher 3   Librarian, translator from Estonian
 29. Robert  1906  Secondary-vocational  3  Tugboat captain
 30. Salme  1935  Higher  3  Physicist
 31. Vambola  1929  Secondary-vocational  3  Geologist-geodesist


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