Visual Literacy Bibliography - IX Cultural / Critical Studies

IX A. Sociology / Anthropology

Adams, M. "Commentary. Looking Beyond the Photographic Image. Visual Resources. 4 (1987): 273-281.

Albers, Patricia C. and William R. James. "Travel Photography: A Methodological Approach." Annals of Tourism Research. 15 (1988): 134-158.

Albers, Patricia C. and William R. James. "Private and Public Images: A Study of Photographic Contrasts in Postcard Pictures of Great Basin Indians, 1898-1919." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 343-366.

Asch, Timothy, John Marshall and P. Spier. "Ethnographic Film: Structure and Function." Annual Review of Anthropology. 2 (1973): 179-187.

Asch, Timothy. "Future Prospects for the Visualization of Culture: Does the Native Still Exist?" In Robert M. B. Flaes and Douglas Harper (Eds.). Eyes Across the Water II. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993): 3-9.

Bailey, Roger. "From Fine Arts to Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 1:1 (Spring 1986): 11-13.

Balikci, Asen. "Anthropologists and Ethnographic Filmmaking." In J. R. Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood Academic, 1988).

Banks, Marcus. "The Seductive Veracity of Ethnographic Film." SVA Review. 6:1 (1990): 16-21.

Banks, Marcus. "Talking Heads and Moving Pictures: David Byrnes's 'True Stories' and the Anthropology of Film." Visual Anthropology. 3:1 (1990): 1-9.

Banks, Marcus. "Experience and Reality in Ethnographic Film." Visual Sociology. 5:2 (Fall 1990): 30-33.

Banta, Melissa and Curtis Hinsley. From Site to Sight: Anthropology, Photography and the Power of Imagery. (Cambridge, MA: Peabody Museum Press, 1986).

Baranowska, Malgorzata. "The Mass-produced Postcard and the Photography of Emotions." Visual Anthropology. 7:3 (1995): 171-189.

Bateson, Gregory and Margaret Mead. Balinese Character: A Photographic Analysis. (New York: Academy of Sciences Special Publication 2, 1941).

Becker, Howard S. "Photography and Sociology." Studies in Visual Communication 1:1 (Fall, 1974): 3-26.

Becker, Howard S. "Art as Collective Action" American Sociological Review 39 (1974).

Becker, Howard S. Exploring Society Photographically. (Evanston: Northwestern University, 1981).

Becker, Howard S. "Visual Sociology, Documentary Photography, and Photojournalism: It's (Almost) All a Matter of Context." Visual Sociology. 10: 1-2 (1995): 5-14.

Bertoria, Carl. "Photographing Hairstyles: Notes on the Practice of Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 3:1 (Spring 1988): 16-18.

Biella, Peter. "Beyond Ethnographic Film: Hypermedia and Scholarship." In Jack Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Film and Video in the 1990s. (Brockport, NY: The Institute Inc., 1993): 131-176.

Blackman, Margaret B. "Blankets, Bracelets and Boas: The Potlatch in Photographs." Anthropological Papers of the University of Alaska. 18:2 (1977): 53-67.

Blackman, Margaret B. "Visual Ethnohistory: Photographs in the Study of Culture History." In Dennis Weidman, Gerry Williams and Mario Zamora (Eds.) Studies in the Third World Societies Publication. 35 (Williamsburg, VA: William and Mary College, 1986): 137-166.

Blinn, Lynn and Amanda W. Harris. "Combining Native Instant Photography and Photo-Elicitation." Visual Anthropology. 4:2 (1991): 175-192.

Boerdam, Jaap, and Warna Oosterbaan Martinius. "Family Photographs: A Sociological Approach." Netherlands Journal of Sociology. 16 (1980): 95-119.

Bogaart, N. C. and H. W. Ketelaar, (Eds.) Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking. (Gottinger: Edition Herodot, 1983).

Boonzajer Flaes, Robert and Martin Rens. "Polka: Using the Camera as a Research Instrument." Visual Sociology. 3:1 (Spring 1988): 15-16.

Brizee, Sandra L. "Pictographs and Photographs." The Society for the Anthropology of Visual Communication Newsletter. 10:2 (1982): 68-86.

Brouwer, Herman. "Communicating with Pictures: The Role of Pictures in Health Education in Outpatient Clinics of rural African Hospitals." Visual Sociology. 10:1 (1995): 15-27.

de Bromhead, Toni. "Filmic Pleasure and Non-fiction Film: The Pressure to Produce More Lively Films." In Robert M. B. Flaes and Douglas Harper (Eds.) Eyes Across the Water II. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993): 71-79.

Brown, J.D., C. R. Dykers, J.R. Steele and A. B. White. "Teenage Room Culture: Where Media and Identities Interact." Communication Research. 21:6 (December 1994): 813-827.

Bucher, Bernadette. "The Savage European: A Structural Approach to European Iconography of the American Indian." Studies in Visual Communication. 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 80-86.

Bunster, Ximena B. "Talking Pictures: A Study of Proletarian Mothers in Lima, Peru." Studies in Visual Communication. 5 (1978): 37-55.

Bunster, Xavier. "Talking Pictures: Field Method and Visual Mode." Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society. 3:1 (1977): 278-293.

Caldarola, Victor J. "Visual Contexts: A Photographic Research Method in Anthropology." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:3 (1985): 33-53.

Caldarola, Victor J. "The Generation of Primary Photographic Data in Ethnographic Fieldwork and the Problem of Objectivity." In M. Taureg and J. Ruby (Eds.) Visual Explorations of the World. (Aachen: Edition Heredot, 1987): 217-239.

Caldarola, Victor J. "Imaging Process as Ethnographic Inquiry." Visual Anthropology. 1:4 (1988): 433-451.

Caulfield, Jon. "The Work of Knowledge in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction. Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991):

Caulfield, Jon. "A Framework for a Sociology of Visual Images." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 60-71.

Chalfen, Richard. "Cinema Naivete: A Study of Home Moviemaking as Visual Communication." Studies in Visual Communication. 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 87-103.

Chalfen, Richard. "A Sociovidistic Approach to Children's Filmmaking: The Philadelphia Project." Studies in Visual Communication. 7:1 (1981): 2-31.

Chalfen, Richard. "Redundant Imagery: some Observations on the Use of Snapshots in American Culture." Journal of American Culture. 4:1 (1981): 106-113.

Chalfen, Richard. "Exploiting the Vernacular: Studies of Snapshot Photography." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:3 (1983): 70-84.

Chalfen, Richard. Snapshot: Versions of Life. (Bowling Green, OH: Bowling Green State University Popular Press, 1987).

Chalfen, Richard. "Japanese American Family Photography." Visual Sociology. 3:2 (Fall 1987): 12-17.

Chalfen, Richard. "Native Participation in Visual Studies: From Pine Springs to Philadelphia." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 71-79.

Chalfen, Richard. "Picturing Culture Through Indigenous Imagery: A Telling Story. In Peter Crawford and David Turton, (Eds.) Film as Ethnography. (Manchester: University of Manchester Press, 1992): 222-241.

Chaplin, Elizabeth. Sociology and Visual Representation. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

Chiozzi, Paolo. "Photography and Anthropological Research: Three Case Studies." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 43-50.

Chiozzi, Paolo. "Reflections on Ethnographic Film with a General Bibliography." Visual Anthropology. 2:1 (1989): 1-84.

Clarke, Alfred C. and Timothy J. Curry. Introducing Visual Sociology. (Dubuque, IA: Kendall/Hunt, 1978).

Collier, John, Jr. and Malcolm Collier. Visual Anthropology: Photography as a Research Method. (rev. and expanded edition). (Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press, 1986).

Collier, John Jr.. "Visual Anthropology and the Future of Ethnographic Film," In Jack R. Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood, 1988), 73-96.

Cowling, M. The Artist as Anthropologist: The Representation of Type and Character in Victorian Art. (Cambridge: University Press, 1989).

Crawford, Peter and David Turton, (Eds.) Film as Ethnography. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1992).

Critios, Costas and Tim Quinlan. "Community Video: Power and Process." Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991): 39-52.

Critios, Costas and Tim Quinlan. "Communication That Doesn't Work? Postmodernism and Community Video: A Reply to Deacon." Visual Sociology. 8:2 (Fall 1993): 67-69.

Curry, Timothy. "Form Follows Function in Photography." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 20-22.

Damico, Sandra B. "The Two Worlds of School: Differences in the Photographs of Black and White Adolescents." Urban Review. 17 (1985): 210-222.

Danzker, Jo-Anne Birnie. "Robert Flaherty/Photographer." Studies in Visual Communication. 6:2 (1980): 3-32.

Deacon, Roger. "Power, Knowledge and Community Video Revisited." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 39-48.

Desmond, Jane. "Ethnography, Orientalism and the Avant-Garde Film." Visual Anthropology. 4:2 (1991): 147-160.

Edwards, Elizabeth. "'Photographic Types': The Pursuit of Method." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 235-258.

Edwards, Elizabeth. Anthropology & Photography 1860-1920. (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1992).

Elsass, Peter. "Self-Reflection or Self-Preservation: A Study of the Advocacy Effect." Visual Anthropology. 4:2 (1991): 161-173.

Faccioli, Patrizia and Andrea Pitasi. "A Portrait of Italian Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 10:1 (1995): 50-60.

Falconer, John. "Ethnographical Photography in India: 1850-1900." The Photographic Collector. 5:1 (1984): 16-46.

Fischer, John. "Art Styles as Cultural Cognitive Maps." American Anthropologist, 63 (1): 79-93.

Flaes, Robert M. (Ed.) Eyes Across the Water: The Amsterdam Conference on Visual Anthropology and Sociology. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1989).

Flaes, Robert M. Boonzajer and Douglas Harper (Eds.) Eyes Across the Water II. (Amsterdam: Het Spinhuis, 1993).

Fleming, Paula Richardson and Judith Luskey. The North American Indians in Early Photographs. (New York: Harper and Row, 1986).

de France, Claudine. "Filmic Anthropology: A Difficult but Promising Birth." Visual Anthropology. 6:1 (1993): 1-23.

Francis, Roy G. "Teaching Students to See." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 44-46.

Frankenberger, Leo. "Going Out of Business in Highland Park." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 24-32.

Frese, Pamela R. "Artifacts of Gendered Space: American Yard Decoration." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 17-42.

Friedman, Judith. "Suburban Landscape: Views of new Jersey Artists." Visual Sociology. 8:2 (Fall 1993): 28-39.

Fuchs, Peter. "Ethnographic Film in Germany: An Introduction." Visual Anthropology. 1:3 (1988): 217-233.

Gardner, Saundra. "Exploring the Family Album: Social Class Differences in Images of Family Life." Sociological Inquiry (May, 1991): 242-251.

Geary, Christraud M. "Photographs as Materials for African History: Some Methodological Considerations." History in Africa. 13 (1986): 89-116.

Geary, Christraud M. "Impressions of the African Past: Interpreting Ethnographic Photographs from Cameroon." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 289-315.

Geffroy, Yannick. "Family Photographs: A Visual Heritage." Visual Anthropology. 3:4 (1990): 367-409.

Ginsburg, Faye. "In Whose Image? Indigenous Media from Aboriginal Central Australia." CVA Review. (Fall 1989): 16-20.

Glenn, James R. "The Growth of an Anthropological Photograph Collection: From Passive Acceptance to the Imperative for Controlled Growth." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 157-168.

Gold, Peter. "Returning Photographs to the Indians." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:3 (Summer, 1983): 2-14.

Gold, Steven. "Student Critiques and Teaching Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 1:1 (Spring 1986): 8-10.

Gold, Steven. "Photography and Field Contacts." Visual Sociology. 1:1 (Spring 1986): 13-14.

Gold, Steven. "Reading Materials in Visual Sociology: Where's the Middle Range?" Visual Sociology 1:2 (Fall 1986): 22-24.

Gold, Steven. "New York/:A: A Visual Comparison of Public Life in Two Cities." Visual Sociology. 10:1 (1995): 109-111.

Grady, John. "The Visual Essay and Sociology." Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991): 23-38.

Green, David. "Classified Subjects--Photography and Anthropology: The Technology of Power." Ten-8. 14:3 (1984): 3-37.

Guran, Milton. "Every Day is the Day of the Indian." Visual Sociology. 5:2 (Fall 1990): 15-21.

Harper, Douglas. Good Company. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1982).

Harper, Douglas. Working Knowledge. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).

Harper, Douglas. "The Visual Ethnographic Narrative." Visual Anthropology. 1:1 (1987): 1-19.

Harper, Douglas. "Visual Sociology: Expanding Sociological Vision." The American Sociologist. 19 (Spring 1988): 54-70.

Harper, Douglas. "Interpretive Ethnography: From 'Authentic Voice' to 'Interpretive Eye'." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 33-43.

Harper, Douglas. "Visual Sociology at the University of Amsterdam: Personal Notes and Recollections." Visual Sociology. 5:2 (Fall 1990): 34-40.

Heider, Karl. Ethnographic Film. (Austin: University of Texas Press, 1976).

de Heusch, Luc. "The Cinema and Social Science: A Survey of Ethnographic and Sociological Films." Visual Anthropology. 1 (1988): 99-156.

Hirsch, Julia. Family Photographs: Content, Meaning and Effect. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1981).

Hockings, Paul. "Ethnographic Filming and the Development of Anthropological Theory. In Paul Hockings and Yasuhiro Omori, (Eds.). Cinematographic Theory and New Dimensions in Ethnographic Film. (Osaka: National Museum of Ethnology 24, 1988): 185-204.

Hockings, Paul (Ed.) Principles of Visual Anthropology. (The Hague: Mouton, 1975).

Homiak, John P. "Melville J. Herskovits: Motor Behavior and the Imaging of Afro-American Culture." Visual Anthropology. 3:1 (1990): 11-29.

Husmann, Rolf. "The Anthropological and Sociological Film: Production Strategies in the Next Decade." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 14.

Im Thurn, E. "Anthropological Uses of the Camera." Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 22 (1893): 184-203.

Inglesby, Pamela. "Button-Pressers Versus PictureMakers: The Social Reconstruction of Amateur Photography in the Late 19th Century U.S." Visual Sociology. 5:1 (Spring 1990): 18-25.

Jacknis, Ira. "Franz Boas and Photography." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:1 (Winter, 1984): 2-60.

Jacknis, Ira. "Margaret Mead and Gregory Bateson in Bali: Their Use of Photography and Film." Cultural Anthropology. 3:2 (1989): 160-177.

Jacknis, Ira. "James Mooney as an Ethnographic Photographer." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 179-212.

Jackson, Bruce and Diane Christian. "Editing Reality." Visual Sociology. 9:1 (Spring 1994): 62-74.

Jansen, Margriet. "Better Little Than Too Much." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Spring 1991): 13-23.

Jenkins, Paul. "The Earliest Generation of Missionary Photographers in West Africa: The Portrayal of Indigenous People and Culture." Visual Anthropology. 7:2 (1994): 115-145.

Jhala, Jayasinhji. "Power and the Portrait: The Influence of the Ruling Elite on the Visual Text in Western India." Visual Anthropology. 6:2 (1993): 171-198.

Kaplan, Flora S. "Some Uses of Photographs in Recovering Cultural History at the Royal Court of Benin, Nigeria." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 317-341.

King, Graham. Say 'Cheese!'" Looking at Snapshots in a New Way. (New York: Dodd, Mead & Co., 1978).

Kirkpatrick, Joanna. "The Painted Rickshaw as Culture Theater." Studies in Visual Communication. 10:3 (Summer, 1984): 73-85.

Koloss, H. J. "The Ethnographical Film as a Medium of Documentation and as a Medium of Research." In N. C. Bogaart and H. W. Ketelaar, (Eds.) Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking. (Gottinger: Edition Herodot, 1983).

Kotkin, Amy. "The Family Photo Album as a Form of Folklore." Exposure (March, 1978): 4-8.

Kriznar, Nasko. "Visual Symbols of National Identity." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Spring 1993): 58-63.

Krouse, Susan Applegate. "Photographing the Vanishing Race." Visual Anthropology. 3: 2-3 (1990): 213-233.

Kulick, Don and Margaret E. Willson. "Echoing Images: The Construction of Savagery Among Papua New Guinean Villagers." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 143-152.

Kunt, Erno. "Photography and the Peasant." New Hungarian Quarterly. 24:96 (1983): 13-20.

Lansing, Stephen. "The Decolonization of Ethnographic Film." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 10-18.

Larson, Heidi. "Photography That Listens." Visual Anthropology. 1:4 (1988): 415-432.

Lester, Paul M. "Looks Are Deceiving: The Portraits of Christopher Columbus." Visual Anthropology. 5:2 (1992): 211-227.

Levine, Robert M. (Ed.) "Windows on Latin America: Understanding Society Through Photographs." Special issue South Eastern Latin Americanist. (Coral Gables, FL: Nor-South Center, University of Miami, 1987).

Levine, Robert M. Images of History: Nineteenth and Early Twentieth Century Latin American Photographs as Documents. (Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 1989).

Levy, Michael. Time Frames. The Meaning of Family Pictures. (New York: Pantheon Books, 1980).

Loizos, Peter. Innovation in Ethnographic Film: From Innocence to Self-Consciousness, 1955-1985. (Manchester: Manchester University Press, 1993).

Lutkehaus, N. "' Excuse Me, Everything is Not All Right'. On Ethnography, Film, and Representation. An Interview with Filmmaker Dennis O'Rourke." Cultural Anthropology. 4:4 (1989): 422-437.

Lutz, Nancy and J. Collins. "The Photograph as an Intersection of Gazes: The Examples of the National Geographic." Visual Anthropology Review. 7 (1991): 134-150.

Lyman, C. M. The Vanishing Race and Other Illusions: Photographs of Indians by Edward S. Curtis. (New York: Pantheon, 1982).

MacDougall, David. "Beyond Observational Cinema." In Paul Hockings, (Ed.) Principles of Visual Anthropology. (Hague: Mouton Publishers, 1975): 109-126.

MacDougall, David. "Ethnographic Film: Failure and Promise." Annual Review of Anthropology. 7 (1978): 405-425.

MacDougall, David. "Photo Hierarchicus: Signs and Mirrors in Indian Photography." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 103-129.

MacDougall, David. "The Subjective Voice in Ethnographic Film." In Leslie Devereaux and Roger Hillman, (Eds.) Fields of Vision: Essays in Film Studies, Visual Anthropology and Photography. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1995).

Maio, Mark. "Buffalo's Old First Ward: A Photographic Study." Visual Sociology. 6:2 (Fall 1991): 53-77.

Malmsheimer, Lonna M. "'Imitation White Man': Images of Transformation at the Carlisle Indian School." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:4 (1985): 54-75.

Malmsheimer, Lonna M. "Photographic Analysis as Ethnohistory: Interpretive Strategies." Visual Anthropology. 1:1 (1987): 21-36.

Margolis, Eric. "Images in Struggle: Photographs of Colorado Coal Camps. Visual Sociology. 9:1 (Spring 1994): 4-26.

Marr, Carolyn. "Taken Pictures: On Interpreting Native American Photographs of the Southern Northwest Coast." Pacific Northwest Quarterly. 80:2 (1989): 52-61.

Matthews, Thomas and Hind. "Problems and Solutions in Using the Video Camera for Field Work." Visual Sociology. 2:2 (Fall 1987): 11-15.

Mead, Margaret. "Visual Anthropology in a Discipline of Words." In Paul Hockings (Ed.) Principles of Visual Anthropology. (The Hague: Mouton, 1975).

Miles, Margaret R. Image as Insight. Visual Understanding in Western Christianity and Secular Culture. (Boston: Beacon Press, 1985).

Morgan, Sandra. Gender and Anthropology: Critical Reviews for Research and Teaching (Washington: American Anthropological Association, 1989).

Mulvaney, J. and G. Walker. The Aboriginal Photographs of Baldwin Spencer. (South Yarra: John Currey O'Neil Publ., 1982).

Munn, Nancy. "Visual Categories: An Approach to the Study of Representational Systems." American Anthropologist. 68 (1966): 939-950.

Musello, Christopher. "Studying the Home Mode: An Exploration of Family Photography and Visual Communication." Studies in Visual Communication 6;1 (Spring, 1980): 23-42.

Nesterenko, Alexander and C. Zoe Smith. "Contemporary Interpretations of Robert Frank's The Americans." Journalism Quarterly (Autumn, 1984): 567-577.

Newbitt, Eleanor. "Photographing Worship: Ethnographic Study of Children's Participation in Acts of Worship." Visual Anthropology 5:2-4 (1992): 285-306.

Neumann, Mark. "The Traveling Eye: Photography, Tourism and Ethnography." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 22-38.

Niessen, Sandra A. "More to It than Meets the Eye: Photo-Elicitation Amongst the Batak of Sumatra." Visual Anthropology. 4:3-4 (1991): 415-430.

Nordstrom, Allison Devine. "Wood Nymphs and Patriots: Depictions of Samoans in The National Geographic Magazine." Visual Sociology. 7:2 (Fall 1992): 49-59.

Nordstrom, Allison Devine. "Photographies of Art and Science." Visual Sociology. 9:2 (Fall 1994): 97-101.

Norman, Wilbert Rueben, Jr. "Photography as a Research Tool." Visual Anthropology, 4 (1991): 193-216.

Pandya, Vishvajit. "From Photography to Ethnography: Andamanese Documents and Documentation." Visual Anthropology. 4:3-4 (1991): 379-413.

Passariello, Phyllis. "Informed Impressions: Cumulative Ethnography and the Anthropologist as Tourist." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Pedelty, Mark. "News Photography and Indigenous Peoples: An 'Encounter' in Guatemala, "Visual Anthropology 6 (1993): 285-301

Piette, Albert. "Epistemology and Practical Applications of Anthropological Photography." Visual Anthropology 9 (1993): 157-170.

Pinney, Christopher. "Classification and Fantasy in the Photographic Construction of Caste and Tribe." Visual Anthropology. 3:2-3 (1990): 259-288.

Poignant, R. "Getting the Picture: Axel Poignant's Photographic Record of a Threatened Fight in Arnhem Land." Journal of Museum Ethnography. 1 (1989): 15-22.

Portman, M. V. "Photography for Anthropologists." Journal of the Anthropological Institute. 25 (1896): 75-85.

Prins, Harold. "American Indians and the Ethnocinematic Complex: From Native Participation to Production Control." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 80-90.

Psathas, George. "Teaching Visual Sociology." Visual Sociology. 4:1 (Spring 1989): 16-17.

Psathas, George. "Teaching Visual Sociology in Japan." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Spring 1991): 33-37.

Quinney, Richard. "A Sense Sublime: Visual Sociology as a Fine Art." Visual Sociology. 10 (1995): 61-84.

Reid, John Edgar, Jr. "The Television Archive: A Source for the Sociological Study of Culture." Visual Sociology. 7:1 (Spring 1992): 80-88.

Rieger, Jon H. "Visual Sociology: A Practical Pedagogy." Visual Sociology. 6:1 (Summer 1991): 38-43.

Rollwagen, Jack R. "The Role of Anthropological Theory in 'Ethnographic' Filmmaking," In Jack R. Rollwagen (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood, 1988), 287-315.

Rollwagen, Jack R. (Ed.) Anthropological Filmmaking. (Chur: Harwood, 1988).

Rollwagen, Jack R. (Ed). Anthropological Film and Video in the 1990s. (Brockport: The Institute, Inc., 1993).

Rosenblum, Barbara. "Style as Social Process." American Sociological Review. 43 (1978).

Rosenblum, Barbara. Photographers at Work: a Sociology of Photographic Styles. (New York: Holmes and Meier, 1978).

Ruby, Jay. "Up the Zambezi With Notebook and Camera, or Being an Anthropologist Without Doing Anthropology. . . With Pictures." Program in Ethnographic Film Newsletter. 4:3 (1973): 12-14.

Ruby, Jay. "Is an Ethnographic Film a Filmic Ethnography?" Studies in Visual Communication. 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 104-111.

Ruby, Jay. "Frank Boas and Early Camera Study of Behavior." The Kinesis Report. 3:1 (1980): 6-11, 16.

Ruby, Jay. "Exposing Yourself: Reflexivity, Anthropology and Film." Semiotica. 30:1/2 (1980): 153-179.

Ruby, Jay. "Beyond Realism/Formalism: Toward a New Role for Film in Anthropology." Journal of Visual Verbal Languaging. 1:1 (1981): 49-60.

Ruby, Jay. "Seeing Through Pictures: The Anthropology of Photography." Camera-Lucida." The Journal of Photographic Criticism. (Spring 1981): 19-32.

Ruby, Jay. "Ethnography as Trompe l'Oeil: Film and Anthropology." In Jay Ruby, (Ed.) A Crack in the Mirror. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982): 121-131.

Ruby, Jay (Ed.) A Crack in the Mirror. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982.

Ruby, Jay. "An Early Attempt at Studying Human Behavior with a Camera: Franz Boas and the Kwakiutl--1930." In N.C.R. Bogaart and H.W.E.R. Ketelaar, (Eds.) Methodology in Anthropological Filmmaking. (Gottingen: Edition Herodot, 1983).

Ruby, Jay. "The Future of Anthropological Cinema--A Modest Polemic." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 9-13.

Ruby, Jay (Ed.). "The Cinema of Jean Rouch." Special issue of Visual Anthropology. 2:3-4 (1989).

Ruby, Jay. "Speaking for, Speaking about, Speaking with, or Speaking alongside: Anthropological and Documentary Dilemma." Visual Anthropology Review. 7 (1991): 50-68.

Russell, Catherine. "Beyond Authenticity: The Discourse of Tourism in Ethnographic and Experimental Film." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 131-141.

Sahay, K. N. "The History of Visual Anthropology in India and the Task Ahead." Visual Anthropology. 4:1 (1991): 25-41.

Scherer, Joanna Cohan. "Pictures as Documents: Resources for the Study of North American Ethnohistory." Studies in Visual Communication 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 65-66.

Scherer, Joanna Cohan. "You Can't Believe Your Eyes: Inaccuracies in Photographs of North American Indians." Studies in Visual Communication 2:2 (Fall, 1975): 67-79.

Scherer, Joanna C. "Historical Photographs as Anthropological Documents: A Retrospect." Visual Anthropology. 3 (1990): 131-156.

Schwartz, Dona. "Doing the Ethnography of Visual Communication: The Rhetoric of Fine Art Photography." Research in Language and Social Interaction. 21 (1987).

Schwartz, Dona. "Visual Ethnography: Using Photography in Qualitative Research." Qualitative Sociology. 12:2 (Summer 1989): 119-154.

Signorile, Vito. "With a Little Bit of Luck It Always Takes Longer." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 18-20.

Signorile, Vito. "Signs and Symbols: An Exploration of the Use of Visuals as Data." Visual Sociology. 3:1 (Fall 1988): 9-14.

Signorile, Vito. "Dis Course is About Pictures." Visual Sociology. 3:2 (Spring 1988): 22-24.

Signorile, Vito. "Reflections on a Chinese Placemat: The Rational and the Real in Visual Structure." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Fall 1993): 52-57.

Singer, Andre. Disappearing World: Television and Anthropology. (London: Boxtree, 1988).

Skinningsrud, T. "Anthropological Films and the Myth of Scientific Truths." Visual Anthropology. 1:1 (1987): 47-53.

Stasz, Clarice. "The Early History of Visual Sociology." In Jon Wagner (Ed.) Images of Information. (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979): 119-136.

Steiger, Ricabeth. "First Children and Family Synamics." Visual Sociology. 10 (1995): 28-49.

Steiger, Ricabeth and Martin Taureg. "Sleeping Beauties: On the Use of Ethnographic Photographs 1880-1920." In Martin Taureg and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Visual Explorations of the World. (Aachen: Edition Herodot, 1987): 316-341.

Stevens, Mariska. "Photography and the Imagined Body." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Fall 1993): 34-40.

Suchar, Charles. "Photographing the Changing Material Culture of a Gentrified Community." Visual Sociology. 3:2 (Fall 1988): 17-22.

Suchar, Charles. "The Sociological Imagination and Documentary Still Photography: The Interrogatory Stance." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 51-62.

Suchar, Charles. "The Jordaan: Community Change and Gentrification in Amsterdam." Visual Sociology. 8:1 (Spring 1993): 41-51.

Taureg, Martin and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Visual Explorations of the World. (Aachen: Edition Herodot, 1987).

Taylor, Lucien (Ed.). Visualizing Theory: Selected Essays from V.A.R. 1900-1994. (New York: Routledge, 1994).

Thorsett, Edvard. "Applying Visual Anthropology: Ethnographic Video and Policy Ethnography." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 91-98.

Tomas, David. "The Ritual of Photography." Semiotica. 40: 1/2 (1982): 1-25.

Tomas, David. "Toward an Anthropology of Sight: Ritual Performance and the Photographic Process." Semiotica. 68: 3/4 (1988): 245-270.

Troy, Timothy. "Anthropology and Photography: Approaching a Native American Perspective." Visual Anthropology. 5:1 (1992): 43-61.

Turner, Terence. "Visual Media, Cultural Politics, and Anthropological Practice: Some Implications of Recent Uses of Film and Video Among the Kayapo of Brazil." CVA Review. (Spring 1990): 8-13.

Van Der Does, Patricia et. al. "Reading Images: A Study of a Dutch Neighborhood." Visual Sociology. 7:1 (Spring 1992): 4-67.

Wagner, Jon (Ed). Images of Information: Still Photography in the Social Sciences. (Beverly Hills: Sage, 1979).

Walker, Andrew L. and Rosalind Kimball Moulton. "Photo Albums: Images of Time and Reflections of Self." Qualitative Sociology. 12 (1989): 155-182.

Watkins, Susan Cotts. "Graphics in Demography." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:3 (Summer 1985): 2-21.

Weber, Ronald L. "Photographs as Ethnographic Documents." Artic Anthropology. 22:1 (1985): 67-78.

Wiber, Melanie G. "Undulating Women and Erect Men: Visual Imagery of Gender and Progress in Illustrations of Human Evolution." Visual Anthropology. 7:1 (1994): 1-20.

Woodhead, Leslie and Andre Singer. Disappearing World: Television and Anthropology. (London: Boxtree, 1988).

Woodward, Peter. "Jewish Children Under the Camera: An Ethnographic Study of Jewish Children in Britain." Visual Anthropology. 5:3-4 (1992): 307-330.

Worth, Sol. "Margaret Mead and the Shift from 'Visual Anthropology' to the 'Anthropology of Visual communication'." Studies in Visual Communication. 6:1 (Spring, 1980): 15-22.

Wright, Terence. "Photography, Realism and 'The Natives'. British Journal of Photography 6400. 130 (1983): 340-342.

Wright, Terence. "Lines of Descent Photography for Evidence or Interpretation?" Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 63-70.

Wright, Terence. "The Fieldwork Photographs of Jenness and Malinowski and the Beginnings of Modern Anthropology." Journal of the Anthropological Society of Oxford. 22:1 (1991).

Young, Colin. "Ignorance or Modesty." Visual Sociology. 4:2 (Fall 1989): 4-10.

Ziller, Robert C. Photographing the Self. (Newbury Park: Sage, 1990).

IX A1. Cross-Cultural Studies

Banks, Ana. "Images Trapped in Two Discourses: Photojournalism Codes and the International News Flow." Journal of Communication Inquiry. 18:1 (Winter 1994: 118-134.

Bazeli, Marilyn J. "Visual Literacy Education: Developing Thinking Citizens Across Cultures." In Roberts Braden, Judy Clark Baca, Darrell Beauchamp (Eds.)Visual Communication, (Blacksburg, VA: The International Visual Literacy Association, Inc., 1991).

Bellman, Beryl L. and Bennetta Jules-Rosette. A Paradigm for Looking: Cross-Cultural Research With Visual Media. (Norwood NJ: Ablex, 1977).

Binnie-Dawson, J. L. M. and P. P. Choi. "A Study of Perceptual and Cultural Cues in Chinese and Western Paintings." Psychologia. 25 (1982) 18-31.

Blackman, M. "'Copying People': Northwest Coast Native Response to Early Photography." BC Studies. 52 (1982): 86-112.

Blinn, Lynn M. "The Family Photo Assessment Process (FPAP): A Method of Validating Cross-Cultural Comparisons of Family Social Identities." Journal of Comparative Family Studies. 19:1 (1988): 17-35.

Deregowski, J. B. Illusions, Patterns and Pictures: A Cross-Cultural Perspective. (New York: Academic Press, 1980)

Deregowski, J. B., E.S. Muldrow, and W. F. Muldrow. "Pictorial Recognition in a Remote Ethiopian Population." Perception 1 (1972), 417-425.

Ekman, P. The Face of Man: Expressions of Universal Emotion in a New Guinea Village. (New York: Garland, 1980).

Falconer, J. "Photography in Nineteenth Century India." In C. Bayley (Ed.) The Raj: India and the British 1600-1947. (London: National Portrait Gallery, 1990): 264-277.

Gustafson, Marilyne R. and Stacy I. Roettger. "Pictorial Literacy Skills of Haitian and Hmong Women." Journal of Visual Literacy. 11:1, 5-84.

Gutman, J. M. Through Indian Eyes: 19th and 20th Century Photography from India. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1982).

Hagan, M. A. and R. K. Jones. "Cultural Effects on Pictorial Perception: How Many Words is One Picture Really Worth?" In R. D. Wald and H. L. Pick, Jr. (Eds.) Perception and Experience. (New York: Plenum Press, 1978): 171-214.

Hamdi, N., F. Knirk and W. B. Michael. "Differences Between American and Arabic Children in Performance on Measures of Pictorial Depth Perception." Educational and Psychological Measurement. 42 (1982): 285-296.

Hammond, Joyce D. "Visualizing Themselves: Tongan Videography in Utah." Visual Anthropology. 1:4 (1988): 379-400.

Hinde, R. A. "The Comparative Study of Non-Verbal Communication." In Jonathan Benthall and Ted Polhemus, (Eds.) The Body as a Medium of Expression. (London: Allen Lane, 1975): 107-142.

Hofman, R. J., and M. L. Trepanier. "A Cross-Cultural Influence on Some Basic Graphic Representations of Young Chinese and American Children." Journal of Genetic Psychology. 141 (1982): 167-175.

Jones, Rebecca K. and Margaret A. Hagen. "A Perspective on Cross-Cultural Picture Perception." In Margaret A. Hagen (Ed.) The Perception of Pictures. Vol. 2. (New York: Academic Press, 1980).

Kenney, Keith. "Using Self-Portraits to Understand Self-Concepts of Chinese and American University Students." Visual Anthropology. 5 (1993): 245-269.

Kenney, Keith. "Photojournalism Education at Universities in China." Journalism Educator. 42 (Autumn 1987): 19-21.

Kenney, Keith. "Photographic Content in Chinese Newspapers." Gazette. 51 (1993): 149-169.

Kenney, Keith. "Influences of Politics and Economics Upon Photographic Content in Chinese Newspapers." Asian Journal of Communication. 3 (December 1993): 56-74.

Masayesva, Victor, Jr. and Erin Younger. Hopi Photographers, Hopi Images. (Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1983).

McElroy, Keith. Early Peruvian Photography: A Critical Case Study. (Ann Arbor: UMI Research Press, 1985).

Metallinos, Nikos, Robert Muffoletto, Rune Pettersson, J. Shaw, and Yasuo Takakuwa. "The Use of Verbo-Visual Information in Textbooks--A Cross-Cultural Experience." International Visual Literacy Association Intentional Symposium, University of London, 1990.

Michaels, Eric. "How to Look at Us Looking at the Yanomami Looking at Us." In Jay Ruby, (Ed.) A Crack in the Mirror. (Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1982): 133-146.

Miller, R. J. "Cross-cultural Research in the Perception of Pictorial Materials." Psychological Bulletin. 80 (1973): 135-150.

Moriarty, Sandra. "Global Advertising and Visual Communication," Journal of Visual Literacy , 9 (1989): 58-69.

Moriarty, Sandra and Lisa Rohe. "Cultural Palettes: An Exercise in Sensitivity for Designers." Journalism Educator, 46:4 (Winter 1992: 32-37.

Mshelia, A. Y. and L. H. Lapidus. "Depth Picture Perception in Relation to Cognitive Style and Training in Non-Western Children." Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. 21 (1990): 414-433.

Myers, Fred R. "Truth, Beauty, and Pintupi Painting." Visual Anthropology. 2:2 (1989): 163-195.

Omari, I. and W. H. McGintie. "Some Pictorial Artifacts in Studies of African Children's Pictorial Depth Perception." Child Development. 45 (1974): 535-539.

Paulgaard, Cry and Toril Jenssen. "Film in the Social sciences of Tromso, Northern Norway." Visual Sociology. 1:2 (Fall 1986): 15-18.

Pettersson, Rune." Cultural Differences in the Perception of Image and Color in Pictures." Educational Communication and Technology Journal. 30 (1982): 43-53.

Pitseolak, Peter and Dorothy Eber. People from Our Side: An Eskimo Life Story in Words and Photographs. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975).

Sauzier, Bertrand. "An Interpretation of 'Man With the Movie Camera'." Studies in Visual Communication 11:4 (Fall, 1985): 30-53.

Seagall, M. H., D. T. Campbell and M. J. Herskovits. The Influence of Culture on Visual Perception. (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1966).

Serpell, R. and J. B. Deregowski. "The Skill of Pictorial Perception: An Interpretation of Cross-Cultural Evidence." International Journal of Psychology. 15 (1980): 145-180.

Sprague, Stephen. "How I See the Yoruba See Themselves." Studies in Visual Communication 5:1 (Fall, 1978): 9-28.

Sprague, Stephen. "Yoruba Photography: How the Yoruba See Themselves." African Arts. 12:1 (1978): 52-59, 107.

Stokrocki, Mary. "Through Navajo Children's Eyes: Cultural Influences on Representational Abilities." Visual Anthropology. 7:1 (1994): 47-67.

Viditz-Ward, Vera. "Photography in Sierra Leone, 1850-1918." Africa. 57:4 (1987): 510-517.

Worth, Sol and John Adair. Through Navajo Eyes: An Exploration of Film Communication and Anthropology. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972).

IX B. Critical Studies

Barry, Ann Marie. "Tailhook 'Top Guns': Visual Templates in the Use and Abuse of Power." Journal of Visual Literacy, 14 (1): 51-59.

Belk, Russell W. and Richard W. Pollay. "Images of Ourselves: The good Life in Twentieth Century Advertising." Journal of Consumer Research. 11 (March, 1985): 887-897.

Creaney, Anne Drolett, Richard A. Couch, Edward J. Caropreso. "Representation of Culture in Children's Picture Books." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Davis, J. Francis. "The Power of Images. Media & Values. 57 (Winter, 1992): 4-6.

Drucker, Johanna. "Artists' Books and the Cultural Status of the Book." Journal of Communication. 44 (Winter, 1994): 12-42.

Durden, Joan S. "The Hollywood Icon of the Cowboy Hero." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Ewen, Stuart. All Consuming Images--The Politics of Style in Contemporary Culture. (New York: Basic Books, 1988).

Goffman, Erving. Frame Analysis. New York: Harper & Row, 1974

Griffin, Michael. "The Millstone of Popular Culture: Competing with the Commercial Mass Production of Cultural Imagery." Visual Sociology, 8 (2): 21-27.

Gumpert, G. and R. Cathcart. "Media Grammars, Generations, and Media Gaps." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 2 (1985): 23-25.

Hammel, William M. (Ed.) The Popular Arts in America: A Reader. (new York, Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1972).

Hill, Ronald Paul. "AIDs and the Arts." In Marin E. Goldberg, Gerald Gorn, and Richard W. Pollay (Eds.). Advances in Consumer Behavior: Diversity in Consumer Behavior. Vol. 17 (1989): 294-297.

Morreale, Joanne. A New Beginning: A Textural Frame Analysis of the Political Campaign Film. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1991).

Newcomb, Horace. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Newcomb, Horace. TV: The Most Popular Art. (Garden City NY: Doubleday/Anchor Books, 1975).

Metallinos, Nikos. "Approaches to Visual Communication Media Criticism and Their Application to Television Genres." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Smith, C. Zoe. "Audience Reception of Diane Arbus' Photographs: A Q-Study." Journal of American Culture (Spring, 1985): 13-38.

Snyder, Joel. "Picturing Vision." Critical Inquiry. 6 (1980): 499-526.

Spitzer, Leo. "American Advertising Explained as Popular Art." In Anna Hatcher, (Ed.) Essays on English and American Literature. (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 19662): 248-277.

Spring, Joel. "Managing Images: Civil Rights and the Anti-War Movement." Chapter. 12 in Images of American Life: A History of Ideological Management in Schools, Moves, Radio, and Television. (Albany NY: State University of New York Press, 1992)

Thoman, Elizabeth. "Rise of the Image Culture: Re-Imagining the American Dream." Media & Values. 57 (Winter, 1992): 7-10.

Zettl, Herb. "The Language of Television: The Language of Television Criticism." Broadcast Education Association Annual Conference, Washington D.C., 1978.

IX B1 Ideology / Bias

Franz, Karen. "Ideology and the Media: Local Television Coverage on the 'Fall of the Berlin Wall' in the United States,"Visual Sociology 8 (1): 2-15."

Goldman, Robert, and Gloria Lester Beeker. "Decoding Newsphotos: An Analysis of Embedded Ideological Values." Humanity and Society 9 (August, 1985): 351-363.

Hall, Stuart. "Signification, Representation, Ideology: Althusser and the Post-Structuralist Debates." Critical Studies in Mass Communication. 62 (1985): 91-114.

Kenney, Keith. "Ideology and Press Photographs: A Framework for Analysis." Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication Convention, Portland, 1988.

Kinder, Marsha. "Music Video and the Spectator: Television, Ideology, and Dream." In Horace Newcomb. Television: The Critical View. 4th ed. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1987)

Lewis, Charles. "Images and Ideology: A Theoretical Framework for Critical Research in Visual Literacy," Journal of Visual Literacy 11 (Autumn), 1991: 10-34.

Nichols, B. Ideology and the Image: Social Representation in the Cinema and Other Media. (Bloomington IN: Indiana University Press, 1981).

Wernick, A. Promotional Culture: Advertising, Ideology and Symbolic Expression. (Newbury Park CA: Sage Publications, 1991).

Wolf, Bryan. "All the World's a Code: Art and Ideology in Nineteenth-Century American Painting." Art Journal. 44 (Winter, 1984): 328-337.

IX B2. Gender & Racial Issues / Stereotyping

Atkin, David and Marilyn Fife. "The Role of Race and Gender as Determinants of Local TV News Coverage." Howard Journal of Communication. (Fall/Winter 1993/94): 123-137.

Armstrong, Carol M. "Edgar Degas and the Female body." In Susan R. Suleiman (Ed.) The Female Body in Western Culture. (Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, 1986): 223-242.

Artz, Nancy and Alladi Venkatesh. "Gender Representation in Advertising." In Rebecca H. Holman and Michael H. Solomon (Eds.) Advances in Consumer Research. Vol. 18 (1990): 618-623.

Berg, Charles Ramirez. "Stereotyping in Films in General and of the Hispanic in Particular." Howard Journal of Communication. 2 (1990): 286-300.

Betterton, Rosemary. "How Do Women Look: The Female Nude in the Work of Suzanne Valadon." In Hilary Robinson (Ed.) Visibly Female: Feminism and Art-- An Anthology. (New York: Universe Books, 1988): 250-271.

Biren, Joan E. "Lesbian Photography--Seeing Through Our Own Eyes." Studies in Visual Communication. 9:2 (Spring 1981): 81-96.

Butler, Rebecca P. and Ann Devaney. "Gender Perceptions in Instructional Technology." Journal of Visual Literacy. 14:1 (Spring, 1994): 11-34.

Condron, Linda, Patricia O'Riley, Suzanne Damarin. "Women and the Discourses of the Visual: Where are Women in this Picture?" In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Judy Clark Baca (Eds.) Visual Literacy in the Digital Age. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1994.

Couch, Richard A. "Gender Equity & Visual Literacy: Schools Can Help Change Perceptions." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Damarin, Suzanne K. "The Ascendancy of the Visual and Issues of Gender: Equality Versus Difference." Journal of Visual Literacy. 13:2 (Autumn, 1993): 61-71.

Devaney, Ann and Alejandra Elenes. "Square One Television and Gender." In Roberts A. Braden, Darrell G. Beauchamp, and Judy Clark Baca, (Eds.) Perceptions of Visual Literacy. 1989 Annual Conference Proceedings. 1990.

Dyer, Richard. Now You See It: Studies on Lesbian and Gay Film (New York: Routledge, 1990).

Dyer, Richard. (Ed.) Gays and Film (New York: Zoetrope, 1984).

Dyer, Richard. "Seen to Be Believed: Some Problems in the Representation of Gay People as Typical." Studies in Visual Communication 9:2( (Spring, 1983): 2-19.

Elterman, H. "Using Films to Teach Gender Roles: Three Theoretical Approaches.:" Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 5:1 (1985): 29-42.

Entman, Robert M. "Blacks in the News: Television, Modern Racism and Cultural Change." Journalism Quarterly. 69:2 (Summer 1992): 341-361.

Friedman, Lester D. Unspeakable Images: Ethnicity and the American Cinema. (Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1991).

Gamian, L. and M. Marshment (Eds.). The Female Gaze. (London: The Women's Press, 1988).

Goffman, Erving. Gender Advertisements. New York: Harper & Row, 1979.

Hagan, Tracey D. "Drawn by Desire: A Study of the Female Image in Modern Art History." In John Deely and Terry Prewitt (Eds.) Semiotics 1991. (Lanham, NY: University Press of America, 1993).

Hooks, Bell. Black Looks: Race and Representation. (Boston: south End Press, 1992).

Kenrick, Douglas T. and Sarra E. Gutierres. "Contrast Effects and Judgments of Physical Attractiveness: When Beauty Becomes a Social Problem." Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 38 (January, 1980): 131-140.

Kervin, Denise. "Gender Ideology in Television Commercials." In Leah R. Vande Berg and Lawrence A. Wenner. (Eds.) Television Criticism. (New York: Longman, 1991).

Kervin, Denise. "Advertising Masculinity: The Representation of Males in Esquire Advertisements. Journal of Communication Inquiry. 14 (1990): 51-69.

Kervin, Denise. "Gender Coding in Magazine Advertisements." Journal of Visual/Verbal Languaging. 7:1 (1987): 52-59.

Leibowitz, Flo. "A Note on Feminist Theories of Representation: Questions Concerning the Autonomy of Art." The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism. 48 (Fall, 1990): 361-364.

Lester, Paul, ed. Images That Injure forthcoming.

Lester, Paul. "African-American Photo Coverage in Four U.S. Newspapers, 1937-1990." Journalism Quarterly. 71 (Summer, 1994): 380-394.

McNally, Coleen and Arnold S. Wolfe. In Darrel G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Eds.) "Deconstructing Images: Understanding the Role of Images in the Social Production of Meaning." In Investigating Visual Literacy, IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990: 291-300.

Muffoletto, Robert. "Representations: You, Me, and Them." In Moore, David and Francis Dwyer, eds. Visual Literacy: A Spectrum of Visual Learning. Englewood Cliffs NJ: (Educational Technology Publications, 1994): 295-310.

Mulvey, Laura. "Visual Pleasure and Narrative Cinema," Screen 16 (Autumn 1975): 6-18.

Mulvey, Laura. Visual and Other Pleasures. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989.

Parker, Rozsika and Griselda Pollock. Old Mistresses: Women, Art and Ideology. (New York: Pantheon, 1981.)

Pollock, Griselda. Vision and Difference: Femininity, Feminism, and Histories of Art. (New York: Routledge 1988).

Prather, J.M and M. J. Einerson. "Jill in a Box: Figure-Ground Differences in Magazine Advertisement Photographs." Speech Communication Association, 1994, New Orleans, LA.

Rakow, Lana F. and Kimberlie Kranich. "Woman as Sign in Television News." Journal of Communication. 41:1 (Winter, 1991): 8-23.

Rakow, Lana F. "Don't Hate Me Because I'm Beautiful: Feminist Resistance to Advertising's Irresistible Meanings." Southern Communication Journal. 57:2 (Winter, 1992): 132-142.

Richins, Marsha L. "Social Comparison and the Idealized Images of Advertising." Journal of Consumer Research. 18 (June 1991): 71-83.

Ruffo, M.M. "Changing Advertising Images: The 'Male Gaze' Turns on Itself." Speech Communication Association, 1992, Chicago, Il.

Russo, Vito. The Celluloid Closet: Homosexuality in the Movies. 2nd ed. (New York: Harper, 1987).

Scott, Linda. "Fresh Lipstick: A New Look at Images of Women in Advertising." Media Studies Journal. 7:1-2 (Winter/Spring, 1993): 141-156.

Seiter, Ellen. "Stereotypes and the Media: A Re-evaluation." Journal of Communication. 36 (1986): 14-26.

Walker, Alice. "Giving the Party: Aunt Jemima, Mammy, and the Goddess Within." MS. (May/June 1994): 22-25.

Warlaumont, Hazel G. "Visual Grammars of Gender: The Gaze and Psychoanalytic Theory in Advertisements." Journal of Communication Inquiry. (Spring, 1993): 4-19.

IX B3. Ethics/Social Responsibility

Ahlhauser, John. "A History of Photojournalism Ethics." In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 2-5.

Bailey, George A. and Lawrence W. Lichty. "Rough Justice on a Saigon Street: A Gatekeeper Study of NBC's Tet Execution Film." Journalism Quarterly. 49 (Summer, 1972): 221-225.

Baker, Robert L. "Portraits of a Public Suicide; Photo Treatment by Selected Pennsylvania Dailies." Newspaper Research Journal 9 (Summer 1988): 13-23.

Beckman, Rich. "Research on Photojournalism Ethics." In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 80-93.

Becker, Howard S. "Foreword: Images, Ethics, and Organizations." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990):xi-xvii.

Beloff, Halla. "Social Interaction in Photographing." Leonardo. 16:3 (Summer 1983): 165-171.

Boorstin, Daniel J. The Image: A Guide to Pseudo-Events in America. (New York: Harper & Row, 1961).

Bossen, Howard. "Zone V: Photojournalism, Ethics, and the Electronic Age." Studies in Visual Communication. 11:3 (1985): 22-32.

Brink, Ben. "Question of Ethics: Where Does Honesty in Photojournalism Begin?" News Photographer (June 1988): 21-33.

Brown, Cindy. "They Do It Differently in Canada: How Law Enforcement Agents Seek Photographic Evidence from Media Outlets." Visual Communication Quarterly. 1 (Winter, 1994): 6-7.

Brown, Jennifer E. "News Photographers and the Pornography of Grief." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2 (Spring/Summer 1987): 75-81.

Braun, Joseph A. Jr. "Recognizing Bias: A Visual Literacy Lesson From Beijing." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Judy Clark Baca and Roberts Braden (Ed.) Investigating Visual Literacy. IVLA Conference Proceedings, 1990 : 367-373.

Bryant, Garry. "10-50 P.I.: Emotion and the Photographer." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2 (Spring/Summer 1987): 32-39.

Coleman, A. D. "Private Lives, Public Places: Street Photography Ethics." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2:2 (1987): 60-66.

Craig, Robert L. "Universal Pragmatics: A Critical Approach to Image Ethics." In Darrell G. Beauchamp, Roberts A. Braden, Robert E. Griffin. (Eds.) Imagery and Visual Literacy. Annual Conference Proceedings, 1995.

Eaton, Marcia. "Truth in Pictures." Columbia University Forum 9 (1966): 1, 27-31.

Fiedler, Fred, Tim Counts and Paul Hightower. "Changes in Wording of Cutlines Fail to Reduce Photographs' Offensiveness." Journalism Quarterly. 59 (Winter, 1982): 633-637.

Gold, Steven J. "Ethical Issues in Visual Field Work," In Grant Blank, James L. McCartney, Edward Brent (Eds.) Practical Applications in Research and Work (New Brunswick: Transaction Publications, 1989): 99-107.

Goodwin, H. Eugene. "That's Shocking," In Groping for Ethics in Journalism. (Ames Iowa: Iowa State University Press, 1987.)

Gross, Larry. "The Ethics of (Mis)representation." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 188-202.

Hansen, C., C. Needham, and Bill Nichols. "Pornography, Ethnography, and the Discourse of Power." In Bill Nichols (Ed.) Representing Reality: Issues and Concepts in Documentary. (Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1991): 201-228.

Hartley, Craig. H. "Ethical Newsgathering Values of the Public and Press Photographers." Journalism Quarterly. 60:2 (1983): 301-305.

Henderson, Lisa. "Access and Consent in Public Photography." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 91-107.

Jay, Bill. "The Photographer as Aggressor." In David Featherstone (Ed.) Observations Essays on Documentary Photography, (Carmel: The Friends of Photography, 1984): 7-23.

Kochersberger, Robert C. "Survey of Suicide Photos Use in Newspapers in Three States." Newspaper Research Journal. 9 (Summer 1988): 1-12.

Lester, Paul. Photojournalism: An Ethical Approach. (Hillsdale: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, 1991).

Lester, Paul (Ed.). The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990).

Lester, Paul and Ron Smith. "African-American Photo Coverage in Life, Newsweek and Time, 1937-1988."Journalism Quarterly, 67 (Spring, 1990): 128-136.

Lester, Paul. "Computer Aids Instruction in Photojournalism Ethics." Journalism Educator. 44:2 (Summer, 1989): 13-17, 49.

Lester, Paul. "Photojournalism Ethics: Timeless Issues." In Michael Emery and Ted Smythe (Eds.) Customized Readings in Mass Communication. (Dubuque, IA: WCB: Brown and Benchmark, 1995).

Lester, Paul. "Military Censorship of Photographs." In Philip Patterson and Lee Wilkins (Eds.), Media Ethics: Issues and Cases. (Dubuque IA: WCB: Brown and Benchmark, 1995).

Lester, Paul (Ed.). Images That Injure: Pictorial Stereotypes in the Media. (Westport CT: Greenwood Publishing Group, 1998).

Linton, James. "'Smile You're on Candid Camera': Some Ethical Issues in Visual Research." First International Conference on Visual Sociology, Windsor, Ontario, 1983.

MacDougall, Curtis D. News Pictures Fit to Print. . . Or Are They? (Stillwater, OK: Journalistic Services, 1971).

Marshall, Ernest C. "Artistic Convention and the Issue of Truth in Art." The Journal of Aesthetic Education. 23 (Fall 1989): 301-305.

Martin, Edwin. "The Rights of Those Pictured." In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 28-34.

Michaels, Eric. "A Primer of Restrictions on Picture-Taking in Traditional Areas of Aboriginal Australia." Visual Anthropology. 4:4 (1991): 259-275.

Myers, Philip N. Jr. and Frank Biocca, "The Elastic Body Image: The Effect of Television Advertising and Programming on Body Image Distortions on Young Women." Journal of Communication. 43:3 (Summer 1992): 108-133.

Newton, Julianne. "Why Ethics?" In Paul M. Lester (Ed.) The Ethics of Photojournalism. (Durham: National Press Photographers Association, 1990): 6-9.

O'Brien. "Eye on Soweto: A Study of Factors in News Photo Use." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 3: 2 (1991): 69-87.

Padgett, George. "Codes Should Address Exploitation of Grief by Photographers." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 1:1 (Fall/Winter 1985/86): 50-56.

Pinney, C. "Other People's Bodies, Lives, Histories? Ethical Issues in the Use of a Photographic Archive." Journal of Museum Ethnography. 1 (1989): 57-68.

Parsons, P. and W. Smith. "R. Budd Dwyer: A Case Study in Newsroom Decision Making." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 3:1 (1988): 84-94.

Roskill, Mark and David Carrier, Truth and Falsehood in Visual Images, (Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1983).

Ruby, Jay. The Ethics of Image Making." In A. Rosenthal (Ed.). Documentary Challenge. (Berkeley: The University of California Press, 1987).

Rynkiewitch, Michal A. and James P. Spradley, (Eds.) Ethics and Anthropology, Dilemmas in Fieldwork. (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1976).

Sanders, B. "Invasion of Privacy...Your Decision or Theirs?" News Photographer. (March, 19896): 12-13.

Schwartz, Dona. "To Tell the Truth: Codes of Objectivity in Photojournalism." Communication. 13:2 (1992): 95-109.

Sherer, Michael. "Manipulating 'Forrest Gump.' Single Code of Ethics Would Better Serve Press, Public." Quill. November/December, 1994: 34.

Smith, Conrad. "Oiled Otters, File Footage and Visual Symbolism: A Case Study in the Ethics of Television News." Visual Communication 5, Breckenridge CO, 1991.

Steele, Robert M. "Video Ethics: The Dilemma of Value Balancing." Journal of Mass Media Ethics 2. (Spring/Summer 1987): 7-17.

Viera, John D. "Images as Property." In Larry Gross, John S. Katz, and Jay Ruby (Eds.) Image Ethics: The Moral Rights of Subjects in Photographs, Film and Television. (New York: Oxford University Press, 1990): 135-162.

Wischmann, Lesley. "Dying on the Front Page: Kent State and the Pulitzer Prize." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 2:2 (Sprint/Summer, 1987): 67-74.

Zemp, Hugo. "Ethical Issues in Ethnomusicological Filmmaking." Visual Anthropology. 3:1 (1990): 49-64.

IX B4. Image Manipulation

Brand, S., K. Kelly, and J. Kinney. "Digital Retouching: The End of Photography as Evidence of Anything." Whole Earth Review. (July, 1985): 42-49.

Harris, Christopher R. "Digitalization and Manipulation of News Photographs." Journal of Mass Media Ethics. 6 (1991): 164-174.

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